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[452] yielded to necessity, and on the third day of Novem-
chap. XX.} 1762.
ber the preliminaries of peace, a peace so momentous for America, were signed between France and Spain on the one side, and England and Portugal on the other.

To England were ceded, besides islands in the West Indies, the Floridas; Louisiana to the Mississippi, but without the island of New Orleans; all Canada; Acadia; Cape Breton and its dependent islands; and the fisheries, except that France retained a share in them, with the two islets St. Pierre and Miquelon, as a shelter for their fishermen. For the loss of Florida France on the same day indemnified Spain by ceding to that power New Orleans, and all Louisiana west of the Mississippi, with boundaries undefined.

In Africa, England acquired Senegal, with the command of the slave-trade.

In the East Indies, France, according to a modification proposed and insisted upon by Bedford, only recovered in a dismantled and ruined state the little that she possessed on the first of January, 1749; England obtained in that region the undoubted sway.

In Europe, where Frederic was left to take care of himself, each power received back its own; Minorca, therefore, reverted to Great Britain.

England,’ said the king, ‘never signed such a peace before, nor, I believe, any other power in Europe.’ ‘The country never,’ said the dying Granville, ‘saw so glorious a war, or so honorable a peace.’ It maintains, thought Thomas Hollis, no flatterer of kings, the maritime power, the interests, the security, the tranquillity, and the honor of England. The

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