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[426] the glades sparkled with the strawberry and the wild
chap. XVIII.} 1761.
flowers; but for the men of that region the inspiring confidence of independence in their mountain fastnesses was gone. They knew that they had come into the presence of a race more powerful than their own; and the course of their destiny was irrevocably changed.

In these expeditions to the valley of the Tennessee, Gadsden and Middleton, Moultrie and Marion, were trained to arms. At Pittsburg, the Virginians, as all agreed, had saved Grant from utter ruin; the Carolinians believed his return from their western country was due to provincial courage. The Scottish colonel concealed the wound of his self-love by affecting towards the Southern colonists that contemptuous superciliousness which had been promoted by Montgomery, and which had so infused itself into the British nation, that it even colored the writings of Adam Smith. Resenting the arrogance with scorn, Middleton challenged his superior officer, and they met. The challenge was generally censured; for Grant had come to defend their frontiers; but all the province took part in the indignant excitement, and its longcherished affection for England was mingled with disgust and anger.

The discontent of New York sprang from a cause which influenced the calmest minds, and was but strengthened and extended by deliberate reflection. It was not because the Episcopal clergy of that colony urged Seeker, Archbishop of Canterbury, to promote the abrogation of provincial charters; for the correspondence was concealed. It was not because they importunately demanded ‘bishops in ’

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