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[430] and every question of authority in church and state
chap. XVIII.} 1762.
was debated. The old Puritan strife with prelacy was renewed; and Presbyterians and Congregationalists were jealous of the favor shown by the royal governors to the established church. In New York the college was under Episcopal direction; as New England's Cambridge was in the hands of Dissenters, Bernard sealed a charter for another seminary in the interior. A fund of two thousand pounds was subscribed to a society, which the legislature of Massachusetts had authorized, for propagating knowledge among the Indians; but the king interposed his negative, and reserved the red men for the Anglican form of worship. Mayhew, on the other hand, marshalled public opinion against bishops; while Massachusetts, under the guidance of Otis, dismissed the Episcopalian Bollan, its pedantic but honest agent, and—intending to select a Dissenter who should be able to employ for the protection of their liberties the great political influence of the Nonconformists in England-they intrusted their affairs to Jasper Mauduit, who, though a Dissenter, was connected through his brother with Jenkinson and Bute and the king.

But the great subject of discontent was the enforcement of the Acts of Trade by the Court of Admiralty; the court which was immediately subject to the king, and independent of the province, where a judge determined questions of property without a jury, on information furnished by crown officers, and derived his own emoluments exclusively from his portion of the forfeitures which he himself had the sole power to declare. The governor, too, was sure to lean to the side of large seizures; for he by law

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