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1 ‘Colonies,’ added the young philosopher,2
chap. III.} 1750.
‘are like fruits, which cling to the tree only till they ripen; as soon as America can take care of itself, it will do what Carthage did.’ For a season, America must have patience; England's colonial policy was destroying itself. The same motive which prevailed to restrain colonial commerce and pursuits urged England to encroach on the possessions of France, that the future inhabitants of still larger regions might fall under English rule and become subservient to English industry. In the mercantile system lay the seeds of a war with France for territory, and, ultimately, of the union and independence of America.

But the attempt to establish that system of government, which must have provoked immediate resistance, was delayed by jealousies and divisions in the cabinet. ‘Dear Brother,’ Pelham used to say to Newcastle, ‘I must beg of you not to fret yourself so much upon every occasion.’3 But the Duke grew more and more petulant, and more impatient of rivalry. ‘It goes to my heart,’ said he, ‘that a new, unknown, factious young party is set up to rival me and nose me every where;’4 and he resolved to drive out of the administration the colleague whom he disliked, envied and feared. For it always holds true, that Heaven plants division in the councils of the enemies of freedom. Selfishness breeds as many factions as there are clashing interests; nothing unites

1 [66] de Turgot, Prieur de Sorbonne, prononce le 3 Juillet, 1750, in Oeuvres de Turgot, II. 591, 592. L'Europe elle-meme y trouvera la perfection de ses societes politiques, et le plus ferme appui de sa felicite

2 Second Discours. Oeuvres de Turgot, II. 602. Ce que fera un jour l'amerique.

3 Pelham to Newcastle, in Coxe, i. 460.

4 Newcastle to Pelham, May 9-20. Coxe, II. 336.

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