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‘ [65] are the basis of colonies.’ ‘To supply ourselves,’
chap. III.} 1750.
he urged, ‘with manufactures is practicable; and where people in such circumstances are numerous and free, they will push what they think is for their interest, and all restraining laws will be thought oppression, especially such laws as, according to the conceptions we have of English liberty, they have no hand in controverting or making. . . They cannot be kept dependent by keeping them poor;’ and he quoted to the ministry the counsel of Trenchard,1 that the way to keep them from weaning themselves was to keep it out of their will. But the mother country was more and more inclined to rely on measures of restraint and power. It began to be considered, that the guard-ships were stationed in the colonies not so much for their defence, as to preserve them in their dependence and prevent their illicit trade.2

In the same year Turgot, then but threeand-twenty years of age, one day to be a minister of France, and a friend to the United States, then prior of Sorbonne, mingled with zeal for Christianity the enthusiasm of youthful hope, as he contemplated the destiny of the western world. ‘Vast regions of America!’ he exclaimed, in the presence of the assembled clergy of France, just twenty-six years to a day before the Declaration of Independence, ‘Equality keeps from them both luxury and want; and preserves to them purity and simplicity with freedom. Europe herself will find there the perfection of her political societies, and the surest support of her wellbeing.’3

1 Trenchard in Cato's Letters, 1722.

2 Memorial from New York to the Admiralty, 1750.

3 Discours

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