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[25] treaty between their chiefs and the commissioners
chap II.} 1748. July.
from several colonies, and the encroachments of France were to be circumscribed by a concert for defence.

As his barge emerged from the Highlands, it neared1 the western bank to receive on board Cadwallader Golden, the oldest member of the royal council. How often had the governor and his advisers joined in deploring ‘the levelling principles2 of the people of New York and the neighboring colonies;’ ‘the tendencies of American legislatures to independence;’ their unwarrantable presumption in ‘declaring their own rights and privileges;’ their ambitious efforts ‘to wrest the administration from the king's officers,’ by refusing fixed salaries, and compelling the respective governors to annual capitulations for their support! How had they conspired to dissuade the English government from countenancing the opulent James Delancey, then the Chief Justice of the Province and the selfish and artful leader of the opposition! ‘The inhabitants of the plantations,’ they reiterated to one another and to the ministry, ‘are generally educated in republican principles; upon republican principles all is conducted. Little more than a shadow of royal authority remains in the Northern Colonies.’3 Very recently the importunities of Clinton had offered the Duke of Newcastle ‘the dilemma of supporting the governor's authority, or relinquishing power to a popular faction.’ ‘It will be impossible,’

1 Clinton to the Duke of Bedford, 15 August, 1748.

2 Clinton to Colden, 11 March, 1748. Golden to Clinton, 21 March, 1748. Colden to the Duke of Newcastle, 21 March, 1748. Clinton to Colden, 25 April, 1748.

3 Ms. Memorial prepared as a reply to the Representation of the New York Assembly of 19 May, 1747. Journals of N. Y. Assembly, II. 149-155.

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