The Undated Reliefs
64. Athens honours the sons of Iphiades
IG I3 28
Athens, EM 6820 + 6820a 440s or 420s Plate 33
Three (?) fragments: a (EM 6820
), found between Theatre
of Dionysos and Odeion of Herodes Atticus, + b (EM
), found in 1859 north of Parthenon. Walbank doubts
that c (EM 5409
) belongs. Right edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on right by 0.0175 wide anta. Surface worn, battered. White, medium-grained marble. EM 6820
+ 6820a: p.h. 0.22 5, p.w. 0.24, th. 0.06, h. of relief 0.04, h. of letters 0.01.
The fragmentary inscription is perhaps a grant of
proxeny for the sons of one Iphiades. The ethnic of
Iphiades and his sons is uncertain; Walbank notes
that the name is known in Samos in the fifth century
and in Abydos in the fourth.
All that remains of the relief is the lower right corner
consisting of a fragment of relief ground bordered on
the right by an anta. On analogy with several other
fifth-century stelai with blank spaces above their texts,
it has been suggested that the panel was painted rather
than sculpted, but in all the painted examples the blank
space is flush with the inscribed surface rather than
recessed and bordered by sculpted antae. The figures
would have been centred in the middle of the panel
(cf. nos. 7, 9, 13, 14, 16, 28).
Early dates between 450 and the early 430s have
been suggested on the basis of the letter forms by
Meiggs, Walbank, and Lewis, but Mattingly has argued that some of the names and phrasing place it in the late 420s. Very little of the inscription is preserved and restorations of its dating formula are speculative. The earliest securely dated document relief with
antae is the stele of 403/2 honouring the Samians (no.
12), although several others (nos. 11, 67, 74) are probably somewhat earlier. (Cf. nos. 63, 66, reliefs whose
dates also depend upon the resolution of the controversy concerning the datable letter forms of this period.)
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1859) 1835 no. 3517; IG
I, p. 21, 76a; A. Wilhelm, ÖJhBeibl
1 (1898) 44; AnzWien
(1911) 170-75; IG
12 143; Wilhelm, AU
4 (1939) 28-31 no.
xxiv, pl. 11; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia
10 (1941) 315-17; SEG
10.52; Meritt, Hesperia
21 (1952) 346-47; SEG
12.24; H. B.
12 (1963) 263-65; BCH
92 (1968) 480-83; Meiggs, 425-27; Walbank, 115-22 no. 17, pl. 8; M.
32 (1982) 258; SEG
32.1; G. Németh,
39 (1987) 101-2; SEG
Athens honours Apollonophanes of Kolophon
IG I3 65 Athens, EM 6615 ca. 427/26 Plate 34
Three fragments: EM 6615
(a, found on Akropolis), EM
(b, found in south-facing wall of Akropolis near
Brauronian sanctuary, c, found at north-east base of
Akropolis). Fragment a has battered relief preserving right
edge, otherwise broken all around. Relief separated from inscription by badly chipped moulding. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.41, p.h. of relief 0.31, p.w. 0.36, th. 0.12, h. of letters 0.02 (lines 1-2), 0.012 (lines 3 ff.).
The decree honours an otherwise unknown Apollonophanes of Kolophon for responsibilities related to
the security of the harbour of Notion. It is generally
accepted that he is being honoured in connection with
events in Kolophon in 427, in which the Athenian
general Paches intervened against the pro-Persian
party besieging the harbour town of Notion and settled loyal Kolophonian refugees there (Thuc. 3.34).
At the right stands Athena, a combination of the
Parthenos and angelehnte types, with a shield on her
left and a large coiled snake on her right. She rests her
left elbow, now barely visible, on the rim of her shield
and with her right hand crowns the smaller figure of
Apollonophanes who stands on the left, facing Athena
with his right hand raised. There might have been
room for a third figure on the left. The only area of
undamaged drapery reveals the straight, uniformly
rounded folds over Athena's weight leg and the curved
loop extending from the ankle of her free leg that are
characteristic of the peplophoroi of the 420s to the
end of the century (nos. 3, 7, 8); the relative thickness
of the drapery argues for a date close to that of the
Rheitos bridge decree relief (no. 3) and the frieze of
the Nike Temple. (For other versions of the Parthenos,
see nos. 16, 30, 106, 132, 164. For the leaning type,
see nos. 7, 76, 98.)
Rangabé I, 346-47 no. 262; Müller and Schöll, 53 no. 29,
75; K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1854) 1141 no. 2208; P.
18 (1860) 25-26 no. 15; Pittakys, ArchEph
(1862) 125 no. 117; Pervanoglu, AZ
25 (1867) 46 no. 4;
Schune, 49 no. 96, pl. 22 (drwg.); IG
1 36 and 74; A. Dumont,
2 (1878) 566; Sybel, 406 no. 6620; Studniczka, 13;
Friederichs and Wolters, 382 no. 1157; Le Bas, pl. 38.1
I Suppl. III, p. 195, 1162; A. Wilhelm, ÖJhBeibl
1 (1898) 44; Walter, Beschreibung
, 9; Wilhelm, ÖJh
(1922-24) 156-58; IG
12 59, Add. p. 302; Binneboeßel, 3
no. 2, 20, 25-26, 39, 40; Svoronos, 665 no. 431 (4), pl.
207.4; Süsserott, 16 n. 11, 197-99, 201 n. 20; Picard II.,
837-38; Walter, ÖJh
32 (1940) 8 n. 28; J. Marcadé, RA
17 (1941) 219; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia
14 (1945) 118; Kirchner,
17 no. 36, pl. 16; SEG
10.70; Karouzou, 155-56, ill. 2
(drwg.); Guarducci, 593; Hiller, 62; Rauscher, 156;
, 55 no. 7e, fig. 12; Corpus I
172 no. 6, fig. 78; Walbank, 202-11 no. 39, pls. 19, 20; SEG
28.12; A. Gerolymatos, Espionage and Treason: a Study of
the Proxenia in Political and Military Intelligence Gathering
in Classical Greece
(Amsterdam 1986) 58-61; Meyer, 265
A 2, pl. 1.2; SEG
Athens and Messana (?)
IG I3 148 Leiden,
Rijksmuseum van Oudheden RO.III.95 420s (?) Plate 34
Fragment seen in Athens by early 19th-century traveller
William Gell, subsequently taken to Netherlands by Dutch
colonel B. E. A. Rottiers and acquired from him by Rijksmuseum in 1826. Preserves part of top, otherwise broken
all around. Relief bordered above by taenia inscribed
[---] and ovolo. Surface worn, corroded. p.h.
0.17, p.w. 0.10. Not examined.
Standing on the left side of the fragment is a female
figure, of whom only the head, arms, and torso are
preserved. She turns in three-quarter view toward the
right and, as the prominence of her left hip indicates,
stands with her weight on her left leg. Her left arm,
broken off at mid-forearm, is extended at shoulder
level toward the right, and her right hand, broken off
at the wrist, is extended downward toward the right.
She wears a peplos with unbelted overfold and a heavy
head-dress like a polos consisting of a round, cushion-like base with a high, flaring crown above it. On
the relief ground just to the right of the head-dress
are the letters ΜΕΣΣ
---, which usually have been
understood to identify the figure as a personification
of Messenia (cf. no. 120, a personification of Salamis).
Just below her right hand are traces of two letters, ΠΡ̣
The evidence for dating the fragment is inconclusive. Meritt and Wade-Gery forcefully argued that, owing to the presence of both the three- and four-barred sigma, a date much later than 446/45 is to be
excluded; this is the generally accepted date for the
disappearance of the three-barred sigma in Athenian
Proponents of this view have abandoned Wilamowitz's early restoration of the archon Philokles of 459/58 in favour of Kirchhoff's restoration of an
unknown secretary, and have assumed that such a
mid-century document must have concerned the
Messenians sealed at Naupaktos rather than Messenia
itself, which was under Spartan control. It has long
been noted, however, that the style of the sculpture
seems much later. In the prominence of her left hip,
the degree of transparency of her drapery, and the
treatment of the V-folds between her breasts, the figure appears to belong between the peplophoroi of the
Parthenon frieze (Brommer, pls. 186, 187) and the
Erechtheion korai (Ridgway, figs. 82, 83), therefore
probably in the 4205 (cf. also no. 3). The style lends
support to the suggestion of Mattingly, following
Woodhead, and an earlier view put forward but ultimately rejected by Michaelis, that the document concerned not the Peloponnesian Messenia but the Sicilian Messana; the Attic form of the name is
Messene. Woodhead had accepted the traditional mid-century date, but Mattingly, a vigorous opponent of
the three-barred sigma rule, associated the relief with
an alliance apparently made between Athens and
Messana in 427/26 (Thuc. 3.90.4). Beginning ca. 430
coins of Messana depict a female charioteer, sometimes with the label Messana just before her head, riding in a mule-car (Head, Historia Numorum
, 153-54; C. M. Kraay and M. Hirmer, Greek Coins
pls. 17 fig. 55 0, 18 figs. 56, 57). The figure in the
relief may be the same Messana, her extended hands
holding the reins and urging her animals on (cf. no.
122). Any restoration of the formula identifying the
official on the moulding above her indicates that there
would have been sufficient room on the right side of
the relief for the mules.
873; L. Janssen, De grieksche, romeinsche en etrurische
Monumenten van het Museum van Oudheden te Leyden
(1848) 43 no. 1, 282; Grieksche en romeinsche Grafreliefs,
uit het Museum van Oudheden te Leyden
(1851) pl. 7, 18;
A. Michaelis, AZ
3.3 (1876) 104 (drwg.)-6; A. Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 565; Friederichs and Wolters, 382 no. 1156; P.
9 (1888) 59-60; IG
I Suppl. p. 9, no. 22g; U.
von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf, Aristoteles und Athen
296; R. von Scala, Die Staatsverträge des Altertums
38 no. 53; Matz, 47-49; A. B. West, CP
20 (1925) 234 n. 5;
IG I2 37
; Gardner, New Chapters in Greek Art
(1926) 235-36; Binneboeßel, 6 no. 17, 28, 40-42; H. Speier, RM
(1932) 23, 24, 90, pl. 6; Svoronos, 599; Süsserott, 28 n. 5;
B.D. Meritt, Hesperia
13 (1944) 224-29, fig. p. 228; A. E.
75 (1944) 10 n. 3; SEG
10.9; Meritt and
H.T. Wade-Gery, JHS
83 (1963) 115-17; SEG
Hamdorf, 92 no. 227 (a); SEG
21.25; H. B. Mattingly, CQ
ns 16 (1966) 186-87; R. Meiggs, JHS
86 (1966) 96 no. 36;
23.13; Mattingly, Atti del I Convegno del Centro
Internazionale di Studi Numismatici, 1967
(1969) 214; SEG
25.17; Mitropoulou, Contributions
, 56-57 no. 8c; Corpus I
175 no. 17 bis, fig. 163; Mattingly, Epigraphica
50-51; Meyer, 269 A 13, pl. 7.1; SEG
Concerning the cult of Apollo IG I3 137
Athens, EM 5 last q. 5th c. (421-16?) Plate 35
Found in 1898 near Gate of Athena Archegetis in Roman
Agora. Part of right edge of relief and inscription preserved,
back smooth. Relief bordered on right by anta, below by
moulding now chipped away. Surface battered, corroded.
White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.52, p.h. of relief 0.225,
p.w. 0.475, p. th. 0.14, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.02 5 (line
1), 0.01 (lines 2 ff.).
The fragmentary decree concerns a sacrifice to Apollo
in Athens. All that remains of the relief are the legs
of two figures standing on either side of the Delphic
omphalos set on a low base between its two golden
eagles. Although only the lower part of the relief is
preserved, Wolters demonstrated that it so closely
resembles the corresponding section of a completely
preserved Attic-style relief in Sparta that it can be
restored with reasonable assurance by reference to it,
assuming that the relief in Sparta is a copy of the
Athenian relief or that both were modelled on the
same source (Sparta Museum inv. 468: P. Wolters,
12 (1887) pl. 12; Hausmann, fig. 35). In the relief
from Sparta the figure on the left is Apollo, turned
toward the right, his weight on his right leg, his left
leg advanced. In his left hand he holds his lyre, in his
extended right hand a phiale. The slightly extended
left leg and the bottom of his drapery are all that are
preserved in the document relief. The figure opposite
him in the Sparta relief is Artemis, turned in three-quarter view toward the left as she pours wine for Apollo's libation with her right hand. She wears a
chiton and himation draped loosely across her abdomen. In the document relief, the crinkly folds of her chiton are visible at the bottom of the relief, and the
lines of the himation, where they can be distinguished
at all, appear to correspond to those in the other relief. Svoronos and Binneboeßel restored a third figure,
Leto, on the far left of the document relief because
the restoration of the inscription indicates that approximately one-third of the relief is missing. Athena, who appears in almost all fifth-century document
reliefs, is another possibility.
There is very little fresh surface remaining in the
relief from which to judge the style, but the deeply
cut, complex folds of the chiton of Artemis resemble
the drapery of some figures of the Nike Temple frieze
(Blümel, pl. I, figs. 1, 3) and the Nike Temple Parapet
(Carpenter, pl. i). Sokolowski dated the decree ca.
430 on the grounds that mention of the oracle at
Delphi called for a date before the Peloponnesian War
and Spartan influence in Delphi; a date during the
Peace of Nikias, as Hiller and others have proposed,
is more likely. The proposer Philoxenos is usually
identified as the son of Eruxis who was ridiculed in
Attic comedy in the late 420S (Ar. Wasps
C. Daremberg and E. Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquités
grecques et romaines
(Paris 1875), 199 n. 16, s.v. omphalos
(G. Karo); P. Wolters, AM
12 (1887) 378-83; A. Wilhelm,
I (1898) 43; AnzWien
(1899) 3; Hiller, SBBerl
(1919) 669-72; l. N. Svoronos, JIAN
I3 (1911) 301-16,
fig. 1; IG I2 78
; W. Bannier, RhM
77 (1928) 284-85;
Binneboeßel, 4 no. 7, 20, 31-32; Svoronos, 666 no. 436 (1),
pl. 211.1; Picard 11.2, 838; W. Peek, AM
66 (1941) 214 n. 1;
10.63; H. Bloch, AJP
74 (1953) 417; J. H. Oliver, AJP
75 (1954) 166-69; SEG
13.6; Wycherley, Agora
, 172 no. 568; SEG
16.6; Sokolowski, Lois sacrées des
, Suppl. 1 (1962) 25-26 no. 8; SEG
B. Mattingly, PACA
9 (1966) 63-64; A. Boegehold, Classical Studies Presented to Ben Edwin Perry
pl. 2; SEG
25.25; Mitropoulou, Corpus I
, 172 no. 3, fig. 75;
IV.6, 55 n. 9; LIMC
II, 704 no. 1075, s.v.
Artemis (L. Kahil); Meyer, 268 A 10, pl. 6.2.
Athens honours Sotimos of Herakleia IG I3 74 Athens, EM 6609 ca. 410 Plate 38
Found on Akropolis in 1835. Both edges preserved, back
rough-picked. Original thickness preserved on right side
only. Relief slightly wider than inscription and separated
from it by plain taenia and ovolo. Surface slightly weathered, battered at extreme left. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.395, p.h. of relief 0.16, w. 0.415 (top), 0.38 (bottom), th. 0.102 (top), 0.085 (bottom), relief h. 0.015, h.
of letters 0.017 (lines 1-3), 0.01 (lines 4 ff.).
The decree is a grant of proxeny to an otherwise
unknown Sotimos of Herakleia and his descendants.
The generally accepted date for the decree of 424 /23
depends upon the restoration of the name Neokleides
as secretary (lines 5-6) and the association of this
man with the Neokleides who appears as secretary in
other decrees of this year (IG
J3 36 and 75). On that
basis, West argued that the Herakleia in question was
the wealthy Pontic city that only months before had
become a tributary member of the empire and that
Sotimos might have been honoured for assisting a
ship-wrecked tribute-collecting squadron under
Lamachos in the territory of Herakleia in the summer of 424 (Thuc. 4.75.1-2
; Diod. 12.72.4
). The style
of the relief, however, suggests a later date; the loops
and viscous curves of Athena's drapery are characteristic of the drapery of dated reliefs of ca. 410 (nos. 7,
8) and of the Erechtheion frieze (P.N. Boulter, AntP
10 (1970), pl. 1).
The relief depicts Sotimos and his city's eponymous hero Herakles standing before a larger figure of Athena seated on a rock at the left. Her shield is
propped up behind her, and she holds her helmet in
her right hand. A similar seated Athena also appears
on the Methone decrees (no. 2), on a number of other
late fifth- and early fourth-century document reliefs
(nos. 11, 71, 87, 90, 91) and on the Nike Temple
Parapet (Carpenter, pls. XIX, XXIV). Immediately to
the right of Athena stands the much smaller Sotimos,
of whom only the lower part of the legs and himation
are preserved. Further right are the nude lower legs
of the slightly larger Herakles. The broad end of his
club rests on the ground at his left and part of his lion
skin can be seen between the club and his left leg (cf.
no. 82). For other possible examples of Herakies as
eponymous hero, see nos. 111, 129, 133, 158.
L. Ross, Kunstblatt
(1835) no. 27 = Archäologische Aufsätze
I (1855) 85; K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1840) 348 no. 426, fig. 426 (drwg.); Rangabé I, 345 no. 260, pl. 7 (drwg.) and 345
no. 261; Müller and Schöll, 53 no. 30, 74-76; Schöne, 26-27 no. 52, pl. 9 (drwg.); A. Dumont, Monuments Grecs
(1873) 34-35; IG
I 65; Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 563-64,
566; P. Gardner, JHS
9 (1888) 50; Le Bas, pl. 36.2 (drwg.);
J. Six, JdI
30 (1915) 88, fig. 9; Walter, Beschreibung
, 12, 16,
20; IG I2 145
; Binneboeßel, 5 no. 13, 20, 36-37, 46, 48, 52, 73; AB. West, AJP
56 (1935) 72-76; Svoronos, 664 no. 431
(2), pl. 207.2; Süsserott, 102 n. 54, 216; Picard II.2, 838;
10.82; Lambrechts, pl. 3; Guarducci, 593-95; Schmaltz,
23 n. 28; Mitropoulou, Corpus I
, 172 no. 8, fig. 82; Walbank,
253-57 no. 46, pl. 26; SEG
28.12; Meyer, 274 A 31, pl. 12.2.
Records of the Sanctuary of Artemis in Brauron
Brauron, Archaeological Museum i 172 (1058) ca. 410 Plate 39
Found in 1961 excavations of sanctuary of Artemis, Brauron.
Top, both edges of relief, and part of left edge of inscription preserved, back rough-picked. Modern rectangular cutting in middle of top and right side of bottom for attachment to wall. Relief bordered above by moulding consisting of plain taenia and ovolo, below by similar, wider
moulding with taenia bearing first line of inscription. Inscribed on relief ground above head of figures on left:
. Surface very worn, stained red and
black, with accretions. White, medium-grained marble.
The unpublished fragmentary inscription below the
relief is a catalogue of dedications to Artemis, one of
a number found in the sanctuary of Artemis at
Brauron. On the far right stands Artemis, who turns
slightly toward the left, with her weight on her right
leg and her right hip pushed outward in a stance resembling that of the angelehnte Athena (cf. nos. 7, 65, 76, 98). Her right hand is lowered and extended; she may originally have held a painted oinochoe. She wears
a chiton and himation draped around her abdomen.
Her head slightly overlaps the moulding above the
relief. Approaching her from the left are five smaller,
bearded worshippers, lined up facing her in profile
view. They are probably officials of the sanctuary,
and they are likely to have been named in the inscription below. The letters of uneven size and intervals
inscribed above the heads of the five appear to be an
awkward attempt to identify one of them as Philomelos (cf. no. 83). The men wear himatia and proceed with left feet forward. The first, third, and fifth
figures raise their hands in adoration; the second and
fourth figures appear to hold objects in their lowered
The style of the relief, with its broad expanses of
very transparent drapery and evenly spaced, tubular
folds, resembles that of Master B of the Nike Temple
Parapet (Carpenter, pl. VII) and of document reliefs of
ca. 410 (nos. 7, 8).
(1961) 26 fig. 25, 29-30; G.Daux, BCH
675 fig. 8, 677; J. Frel, Eirene
(1966) 88 D2; T. Linders,
Studies in the Treasure Records of Artemis Brauronia Found
(1972) 35 n. 14; Frel, Les scripteurs anonymes
no. 79; GettyMusJ
2 (1975) 15-16 no. 11; Mitropoulou,
, 173 no. 12, fig. 126; Neumann, Weihreliefs
, 61-62; LIMC
II, 701 no. 1036a, pl. 526, s.v. Artemis (L. Kahil);
Meyer, 270 A 17, pl. 7.2; D. Peppas-Delmousou, in D.
Knoepfler and N. Quellet (eds.), Comptes et inventaires
dans Ia cité grecque: Actes du colloque international
d'épigraphie, en l'honneur de J. Tréheux
(1988) 329-46, fig.
Honorary decree (?) IG I3 188 Athens, NM 1419 ca. 410 Plate 39
Provenance unknown. Right edge of relief and moulding,
part of top preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered
on right by 0.035 wide anta supporting 0.03 wide entablature, below by taenia inscribed [---]ΕΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕ
cyma reversa, together 0.07 wide. Two modern dowel holes
in bottom surface for attaching base. Surface well preserved,
with red iron stains and some accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.48, p.w. 0.32, th. 0.12, relief h. 0.015, letter h. 0.02.
On the right side of the relief stand four bearded
men, probably officials being honoured by Athena,
who would have stood in the missing left side of the
relief; the amount of space above the heads of the
figures indicates the presence of a larger figure next
to them. All four men wear himatia. The first is somewhat more frontal and taller than the others. His right
arm is broken off; his left arm hangs at his side. The
figure directly behind him turns in three-quarter view
toward the left; his left hand grasps the bunch of
folds at his waist. The third, more frontal figure is
further right and slightly in front of the second; the
end of his himation is draped over his left arm and
his right arm hangs at his side. The fourth man stands
still further right, slightly behind the third and in
front of the anta. He is turned in near-profile view
toward the left; his right hand is raised to shoulder
height and enveloped in his himation, which is
wrapped around his entire body and thrown back
over his left shoulder.
Early scholars, probably noting the similarities
between the figures in this relief and some of the
male figures in the Panathenaic procession of the
Parthenon frieze, called this the ‘oldest document
relief’, and some even suggested a Periklean date, but
the resemblance is superficial. The treatment of the
folds and the degree of transparency in the drapery
more closely resemble the style of the relief of the
accounts of the treasurers of Athena of 410/9 (no. 8).
Schöne, 33 no. 59, pl. 11 (drwg.); IG
I 75; A. Dumont,
2 (1878) 566; Sybel, 64 no. 334; EA
1218.1 (Löwy); Kastriotis, 249-50 no. 1419; V. Staïs,
Marbres et bronzes du Musée National
(1910) 244 no. 1419;
O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl
18 (1915) 92; A. Rumpf, RM
(1923/24) 464; IG I2 161
; Kjellberg, 32, 88; Rumpf, Gnomon
5 (1929) 16; Binneboeßel, 6 no. 18, 36, 42-43; Svoronos,
362-63 no. 117, pl. 37.2; SEG
10.121; Dohrn, 33, 35, 38, 39;
S. Karouzou, National Archaeological Museum, Collection
(1968) 57, pl. 29b; Mitropoulou, Corpus I
no. 16, fig. 161; Meyer, 274 A 28, pl. 9.1.
Content unidentified Dorset, Kingston Lacy
late 5th c. Plate 40
Provenance unknown. Preserves part of top, otherwise
broken all around. Relief bordered above by wide taenia.
Crystalline greyish marble (Vermeule). p.h. 0.34, p.w. 0.21,
max. th. 0.09. Not examined.
None of the text is preserved. The relief depicts Athena
and another figure of the same scale, of whom only
the right arm and hand are preserved. Athena is
almost frontal, but with her head turned sharply
toward the right. She wears a peplos with belted
overfold, perhaps a shoulder mantle, and an Attic
helmet whose crest slightly overlaps the border above.
Her right arm is held a little away from her body,
perhaps holding the edge of her mantle; the relief is
broken at this point. Her left hand is extended somewhat toward the other figure, but she does not clasp his or her right hand.
The drapery of Athena is closely comparable to
that of the Athenas of the decree concerning Athens
and Neapolis (no. 7) and the accounts of the treasurers of Athena of 410/9 (no. 8). Frel attributed the relief to ‘the Myttion sculptor’, whom he identified as the sculptor of the Telemachos Monument, but the
drapery style of the document relief appears finer,
C. Vermeule and D. von Bothmer, AJA
60 (1956) 331, pl.
104.3; J. Frel, Les sculpteurs anonymes
, 25 no. 105;
2 (1975) 15 no. 4; Meyer, 271 A 19.
Athens honours the son of [---]psikles IG II2 86 Athens, EM 6983 1st q. 4th c. (?) Plate 49
Found in 1885 excavations of area of Athenian Agora that
burned in 1884. Preserves part of right edge, otherwise broken all around. Original thickness perhaps preserved at
bottom. Possible remains of 0.03 wide anta at right side of
relief. Fragment worn, with vertical cracks, flakes. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.35, p.w. 0.175, p.th. 0.10, h.
of relief 0.025, relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.008-0.0095.
The decree honours an otherwise unknown proxenos,
son of [Hy]psikles or [Ter]psikles, praising the man
and his father for their services to Athens. All that
remains of the relief is a small fragment of the lower
right corner, with perhaps the feet and drapery of a
figure. The editors of the inscription date the decree
to the early fourth century on the basis of its letter
forms and the form of its prescript. Too little of the
relief survives for comment on its style or date.
S. A. Koumanoudes, ArchEph
1886, 114-15; A. Wilhelm,
24 (1889) 120-21 no. 7; IG
II.5 73f; Pečíirka, Enktesis
, 33-35; M. B. Walbank, Hesperia
54 (1985) 312 n. 7.
Athens honours Komaios Theodorou of Abdera
IG II2 77 Athens, EM 7051 1st q. 4th c. (?)
Found in Akropolis wall some years before 1883. Both sides
preserved, broken top and .bottom. Back rough-picked.
Possible remains of anta at right edge. Surface very worn,
corroded, discoloured. White, medium-grained marble. p.h.
0.56, p.h. of relief 0.155, w. 0.515 (top), 0.525 (bottom), th.
0.095, h. of letters 0.012.
The inscription records two decrees, the second (lines
9-18) conferring proxeny upon the Abderite Komaios
and his descendants, the first (lines 1-8) ordering the
publication of the second. It is usually dated to the
first quarter of the fourth century by the form of its
prescript, but it could as well date to the years soon
after 375, when Abdera was rescued by Athenian
forces after an invasion of the Triballoi and subsequently became a member of the Second Athenian League. (For another relief possibly concerning
Abdera, see no. 179.)
The relief is so worn that only the outline of the
figures is visible. On the right is Athena, preserved
only from the knees down, recognizable by the upright shield leaning toward her on the right. She turns toward the left, probably to crown the smaller
honorand Komaios, preserved only from the calves down, who turns toward her.
U. Köhler, AM
8 (1883) 223-26; IG
II.5 85b; Th. Sauciuc,
37 (1912) 190-97, fig. 1; D. M. Lewis, BSA
33; Meyer, 279 A 48.
Athens and Korkyra IG II2 97 Athens, NM 1467 375/74 (?) Plate 50
Found in 1876 excavations on South Slope. Both sides, top
preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered by tapering
0.035-0.04 wide antae supporting 0.065 wide entablature
with antefixes, below by 0.04 wide moulding consisting of
taenia and ovolo. Surface uniformly weathered. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 1.01, h. of relief 0.40, w. of
relief 0.445 (top), 0.46 (bottom), w. of inscription 0.435
(top), 0.445 (bottom), th. of relief 0.12 (top), 0.14 (bottom),
th. of inscription 0.12, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.007.
The inscription sets forth provisions of an alliance
‘for all time’ between Athens and Korkyra. The document is usually considered a version of the conditions
pertaining to Korkyra resulting from the alliance
concluded between Athens and Korkyra, Akarnania,
and Kephallenia in the second prytany of the
archonship of Hippodamas, 375/74 (Ic II2 96), but
the inscription is rare and troublesome in its complete lack of dating formula.
The relief, which depicts Athena, Zeus, and Hera,
appears to have had more than the usual number of
details added in paint alone, and their disappearance
may have contributed to the confusion over the identities of the figures of Zeus and Hera, often called
Demos and Korkyra. Athena stands on the right, with
her left hand raised and holding her spear, which was
painted. Her right hand hangs down and slightly away
from her side, the fingers separated as though holding her shield, which must also have been added in
paint. She wears her himation draped diagonally from
under her right arm over her left shoulder, covering
most of her body. The crest of her Corinthian helmet
would also have been painted, overlapping the architrave above her. On the left side of the relief Zeus
and Hera turn toward each other. Zeus sits with his
right hand hanging down at his side, his left hand
resting on his thigh. His seat, which is now merely a
projection of the smooth surface of the anta behind
him, must originally have been distinguished from it
with paint. He may also have held a painted attribute
such as a thunderbolt (no. 24), or there may have
been a painted eagle in the large empty space by his
seat (cf. no.
Hera stands very close to Zeus in a somewhat
awkward position probably intended to show torsion
in the upper body; her legs are turned slightly toward
the right, her torso is frontal, and her shoulders and
head are turned toward the left. She wears a peplos
and a mantle draped over her head and extended in
her right hand in the bridal gesture of unveiling. Hera's
identity is established by her dress, position, and gesture, which are traditional for Hera and which indicate an intimate relationship to Zeus (cf. nos. 5, 24, perhaps 41), and by her scale relative to Athena, characteristics which at the same time argue against the
usual identification of the figure as Korkyra. Although
place personifications are occasionally found in document reliefs (nos. 66, 120), patron deities representing
their cities are much more common. The cult of Hera
Akraia was the most important of Korkyra (Thuc.
; 3.75, 79-81; Diod. 22.48
), while the only evidence for representations of Korkyra are Pausanias' reference (Paus. 5.22.6
) to her as part of a group of Zeus
and Asopos with his daughters at Olympia and a rf.
pyxis depicting her in the pursuit of her sister Aigina
by Zeus (LIMC
VI, 103 no. 7, s.v. Korkyra). The
presence of Zeus on Korkyra is attested by a fourth-century votive relief dedicated to Zeus Meilichios
(A. Spetsieri-Choremi, All Corfu
(1988) fig. p. 16), but
his role in the document relief is probably primarily
as consort to Hera.
The relief is a good example of a sculptor's use of models taken from different periods. The figures of
Zeus and Hera are based upon late fifth-century types
(cf. no. 5). This is particularly clear in the sharp distinction of Hera's transparently draped right leg from
her heavily covered left leg and in the billowing of
her veil. The figure of Athena, on the other hand, has
the more voluminous drapery of the figure of the
alliance with Chios (no. 19) of 384/83, as well as the
sturdier stance and reflective quality of the Athena
Rospigliosi (Binneboeßel, 54; G. B. Waywell, BSA
(1971) 373-80, pls. 67, 71b); the broad, sweeping lines
of her himation resemble the drapery of the latter
work. Walbank attributes this inscription to the
mason of no. 14, but the reliefs are not the work of
the same sculptor.
S. A. Koumanoudcs, Athenaion
(1876/77) 334-35 no. 2;
F. von Duhn, AZ
35 (1877) 170-71 no. 101, pl. 15.2 (drwg.);
II, Add. 49b, p. 398; A. Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 559, 560, pl. 12; Sybel, 289 no. 3999; Friederichs and Wolters,
384-85 no. 1161; P. Gardner, JHS
9 (1888) 60; P. Foucart,
13 (1889) 354-63; IG
II.5 49b; Farnell I, 351, pl. 18a;
, pl. 533 rt.; Kastriotis, 261 no. 1467; Matz, 57-58;
3 151; Diepolder, 36-37, fig. 9; Binneboeßel, 9 no. 34,
20, 24, 32, 48, 51-55, 63; H. Speier, RM
47 (1932) 56-57,
91, pl. 20.2; K. Schefold, Untersuchungen zu den Kertscher
(1934) 72-77; Svoronos, 588-91 no. 240, pl. 103;
Curtius, Antike Kunst
, 304, 335, 395, 413, 414, 428, fig. 483;
V. Müller, ArtB
20 (1938) 362-65, 366, 367, 377, 381, fig.
6; Süsserott, 47-54, 75, 78, 111-13, 141, 142 n. 56, 143, 202
n. 22, pl. 3.2; Tod II, 86-88 no. 127; Lippold, 230 n. 1, pl.
88.2; Alscher III, 31, 37, 39, 40, 43, fig. 75; Dohrn, 79;
Bengtson, 218-20 no. 263; Hamdorf, 91 no. 215 (b), 94 no.
254 (e); Schefold, Classical Greece
, 186-87, 188, 194, 220,
249 no. 50, app. pl. 50; Guarducci, 543-46, 607-8, fig. 170;
Schmaltz, 21, 36, 37 n. 49, 39 n. 51; Hiller, 27, 52, 57, 63,
66; Brown, 25-26, 28, 73 n. 53, fig. 79; Kron, Phylenheroen
262 K31; H. Jung, JdI
91 (1976) 113-23, fig. 4 (det.); Richter, A Handbook of Greek Art
7 (1977) 154, fig. 221; Fuchs,
527-28, 533-34, fig. 619; Palagia, Euphranor
, 63; J. Cargill,
The Second Athenian League: Empire or Free Alliance?
(1981) 68-74; G. L. Cawkwell, JHS
101 (1981) 46; SEG
31.61, 65; LIMC
II, 1013 no. 609, pl. 763, s.v. Athena (P.
Demargne); M. W. Walbank, Classical Views
26 (1982) 262;
III, 379 no. 53, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou);
IV, 688 no. 256, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann);
Meyer, 280 A 51, pl. 16.2; LIMC
VI, 103 no. 8, s.v. Korkyra
(G. Dontas); 1089 no. 39, s.v. Kekrops (I. Kasper-Butz, I. Krauskopf).
Victory dedication of the prytaneis of Kekropis
IG II2 1743 Athens, AM 3367 + 2542 + EM
8024 1st-2nd q. 4th c. Plate 51
Four joining fragments, all from Akropolis. Part of left edge
preserved. Relief bordered on left by 0.05 wide anta supporting entablature with pediment, below by 0.10 wide moulding consisting of two taeniae and ovolo inscribed with heading. Surface worn. White, medium-grained marble. AM
3367 + 2542
: p.h. 0.66, p.w. 0.49 (relief), th. 0.145, relief h.
0.025; EM 8024
: p.h. 0.38, p.h. of relief 0.155, p.w. 0.49
(relief), 0.42 (inscription), th. 0.14 (relief), 0.11 (inscription), relief h. 0.03, h. of letters 0.017 (line 1), 0.009 (lines 2 ff.).
The inscription is a dedication of the prytaneis of
Kekropis after they had been voted the best prytaneis
of the year. It was probably dedicated in the heroon
of Kekrops on the Akropolis. On the left stands
Athena, her right hand resting on the rim of her shield.
Her missing left hand was probably raised and held
a painted spear. She wears a Corinthian helmet and a
himation thrown over her left shoulder. Next to her
on the right is Nike, preserved only from the waist
down; the bottom of her wing is visible against the
relief ground behind her. She turns in three-quarter
view toward the right, probably crowning the small
male figure next to her, who represents the prytaneis.
His nude legs suggest that he wore a short chiton,
dress inappropriate for the prytaneis but suitable for
victors in military contests (cf. no. 150). Behind him
on the right is their prize, a large hydria, and above
and behind it two horizontal lines, perhaps the top of
an altar. The restored width of the inscription indicates that there was enough room on the right for another figure, perhaps Kekrops (cf. no. 138).
The style of Athena's drapery, in particular the
broad and simplified yet still clinging expanse of her
himation, resembles that of the figure on the Athenian alliance with Chios of 384/83 (no. 19), of Athena on the relief of the alliance with Korkyra of ca. 375 (no. 96), and of an unidentified female figure in a
relief from a document that concerned Aphytis (no.
104). Meritt and Traill suggested a date in the second
quarter of the century because one of the prytaneis
listed participated in the dedication of a statue of
Aphrodite shortly before 360 (IG II2 2820
, line 5).
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1840) 928 no. 931; ArchEph
549 no. 931, fig. 931 (drwg.); Rangabé II, 793 no. 1246, 799
no. 1254; IG
II 866; Sybel, 446 no. 7198; O. Walter,
14 (1911) 59-60; Walter, Beschreibung
, 38-39 no.
55, fig. 55; Svoronos, 667 no. 442, pl. 217.2; Raubitschek,
Dedications from the Athenian Acropolis
(1949) 191; B. D.
Meritt and J. S. Traill, Agora XV: Inscriptions: The Athenian Councillors
(1974) 29-30 no. 7; Kron, Phylenheroen
101-2, 262 K33; LIMC
VI, 1089 no. 40, s.v. Kekrops (I.
Kasper-Butz, I. Krauskopf).
Content unidentified IG II2 165 (4434)
Athens, EM 2787 1st-2nd q. 4th c. Plate 52
Found on South Slope in excavations of 1876-77. Left edge,
part of top preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered
on left by anta, above by plain pediment with side akrotenon. Taenia inscribed ΔΙΙΠΟΣΜΥ
[---] and ovolo separate
relief from inscription. Surface worn, corroded. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.32, p.h. of relief 0.17, th.
0.08, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.12.
Only a few letters of a name in the first line of the
inscription and the left side of the relief are preserved.
Athena turns toward the right, leaning with her right
elbow on her shield, which stands on a step. Her
raised left hand holds her spear out in front of her.
Her right hand holds the end of her mantle, which is
draped over her left shoulder and brought around
under her right arm, cushioning it from the rim of the
shield. The direction of Athena's attention and the
restoration of the heading require at least one other
figure in the missing right side of the relief.
The leaning Athena was a popular late fifth- and
early fourth-century type (nos. 7, 65), and the drapery of this figure retains some of the doughy transparency characteristic of early fourth-century drapery (cf. no. 14), but the figure's tall, slim proportions and
her more languorous, almost unstable pose (cf. no.
24) make a somewhat later date in the second quarter
of the century more likely.
F. von Duhn, AZ
35 (1877) 158 no. 53; Sybel, 314 no. 4353;
Studniczka, 12, fig. B (drwg.), 13-15; Binneboeßel, 11-12
no. 45, 25, 39, 43, 47; Svoronos, 670 no. 452 (2), pl. 224.2;
Süsserott, 199-202; Marcadé, RA
17 (1941) 219; Karouzou,
153-59, fig. 9; D. Peppas-Delmousou, AJA
69 (1965) 151-52; SEG
22.159; Meyer, 277 A 40, pl. 14.1.
Athens and Siphnos
SEG 17.19 Athens, Agora I 5410 1st-2nd q. 4th c. Plate 52
Found in April 1938 among marbles collected near south
end of Stoa of Attalos (P 12). Part of left edge of relief and
inscription preserved, back rough-picked. Surface worn,
flaked, with dark stains. White, medium-grained marble.
p.h. 0.267, p.h. of relief 0.06, p.w. 0.168, th. 0.073, relief h.
0.01, h. of letters 0.007-0.01.
The fragmentary inscription concerns an agreement
between Athens and Siphnos regarding punishment
in cases involving Athenians at Siphnos. At the left
are the lower legs of a female figure, perhaps Athena,
seated on a rock facing right. She sits with her right
leg slightly extended, her left leg drawn back. Coming from beneath her himation are traces of her peplos.
Woodhead thought that the agreement might be related to similar symbolai with Keos and Naxos in the
years before or after the Social War. A date even earlier
in the second quarter of the century is also possible
for a document concerning a member of the Second
Athenian League (IG II2 43
, l. 126). The rounded,
doughy folds of the drapery call for a date no more
specific than the first half of the fourth century (cf.
nos. 14, 16, 18).
A. G. Woodhead, Hesperia
26 (1957) 231-33 no. 87, pl. 59;
17.19; G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, CQ
ns 11 (1961) 109;
19.48; Bengtson, 258-59 no. 294; SEG
, 33; J. Cargill, The Second Athenian League:
Empire or Free Alliance
? (1981) 137; Meyer, 284 A 66.
Honorary decree IG II2 406 Athens, NM 2985 3rd q. 4th c. Plate 70
Found in 1840 excavations at south wing of Propylaia. Top,
both edges of relief, part of right edge of inscription preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered by tapering
0.05-0.055 wide antac supporting 0.06 high entablature,
below by taenia and ovolo, together 0.065 wide. Surface
very worn, flaked, cracked, with brown iron stains. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.60, w. 0.54, th. 0.23, relief h.
0.05, h. of letters 0.0.5.
The very fragmentary inscription is an honorary decree, apparently for a man from Kroton. On the right stands an Athena of the Parthenos type, turned slightly toward the left (cf. nos. 16, 30, 65, 106, 164). In her
extended right hand she holds a small, frontal Nike,
with wings extended and right hand raised. Athena's
left hand rests on the rim of her shield. On the ground
beneath her extended arm is a large, coiled snake.
Opposite her on the left is a bearded figure of the
same scale who leans on a staff held crutch-like under
his arm. His right hand rests on his hip. His large
scale indicates that he is not the mortal honorand, but
either Demos, whose type he resembles and who is
also shown leaning on a staff in other document reliefs (cf. nos. 117, 150), or more probably Asklepios, an appropriate representative for Kroton, a city famous for its doctors (Hdt. 3.13 I; cf. Svoronos, pls. 35
), 38 (NM 1334
), votive reliefs with similar
figures of Asklepios); the snake is an attribute of
Asklepios as well as of Athena.
The contrast between Athena's hidden weight leg
and her nearly profile free leg is common in the mid-fourth century (cf. nos. 28, 29), but her high waistline is more characteristic of figures of the third quarter
of the century (cf. nos. 36, 40, 46).
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1840) 318-19 no. 382, fig. 382
(drwg.); Rangabé I, 318 no. 6; Müller and Schöll, 60-61 no.
36, 75, Atlas
, pl. III.5; P. Pervanoglu, AZ
18 (1860) 24-25
no. 7; O. Jahn, Aus der Altertumswissenschaft
(1868) 214-15, pl. 1.4 (drwg.); Schöne, 34 no. 62, pl. 12 (drwg.); IG
199; A. Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 568 n. 3; Le Bas, pl. 39
(drwg.); Sybel, 433 no. 7012; Friederichs and Wolters, 388
no. 1172; Farnell I, 351; E. Reisch, ÖJh
I (1898) 88;
Binneboeßel, 14 no. 63, 20, 49, 58-59, 69, 70, 73; Svoronos,
661-62 no. 421, pl. 197.1; O. Walter, ÖJh
30 (1937) 5 n.
16; Süsserott, 85-86, 199 n. 11, pl. 5.4; T. B. L. Webster,
71 (1951) 227 n. 37; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254 (l); B.
96 (1972) 74 n. I; Palagia, Euphranor
n. 113, 62; LIMC
III, 379 no. 45, pl. 274, s.v. Demos (O.
Alexandri-Tzachou); Meyer, 296-97 A 109, pl. 32.1; LIMC
VI, 871 no. 235, s.v. Nike (A. Goulaki-Voutira).
Honorary decree (?) IG II2 4630 Athens, NM 2407 3rd q. 4th c. Plate 71
Found in 1840 in Athens, in or near ruins of Church of
Hagios Dimitrios Loumbardiaris, on saddle between Pnyx
and Philopappos Monument. Preserves part of top, right
edge, otherwise broken all around, back perhaps cut for
reuse, bottom now encased in plaster. Relief bordered on
right by 0.04 wide anta supporting 0.075 high entablature
with antefixes. Architrave inscribed: [Δ
]ΗΜΟΣ ΑΘΗΝΑ ΗΡΑΚΛΗΣ
. Geison inscribed:[ΘΕΟ
(iota ? 0.115 from right edge). Surface worn, corroded, with accretions. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.395, p.w. 0.33, p.th. 0.125
(cut to 0.09), relief h. 0.025, h. of letters 0.01.
Nothing remains of the body on the inscription, but
the apparent traces of the invocation theoi on the frame
of the relief suggest that it belonged to a public document, probably an honorary decree. All three figures preserved in the relief, Athena, Herakles, and Demos, are identified by labels on the entablature above them.
On the right, Herakles, probably the hero of the
honorand's home (cf. nos. 72, 111, 129, i58), turns
slightly toward the left and with his right hand places
a crown on Athena's head. Although deities and heroes usually crown mortals in document reliefs, the figure of Athena crowning Ares in a roughly contemporary deme decree of Acharnai (no. 143) provides at
least one other parallel for the crowning of a deity,
and on the Athenian anti-tyranny law of 337/36 the
personification of Demos is crowned by Demokratia
(no. 38). Herakles' left hand rests on his club held at
his hip; his lion skin is draped over his forearm. Athena
is also turned toward the left. Her raised right hand
held her painted spear. She wears a peplos, aegis with
gorgoneion, and a helmet. Her left hand rests on the
rim of her shield. Still further left is the seated figure
of Demos, facing left as well; only his upper torso is
preserved (cf. nos. 38, 167). He is turned forward in
his chair so that his upper body is seen in three-quarter view; his left arm rests on the back of the chair. The direction of all three figures' attention
indicates that there must have been at least one more
figure, probably an honorand, further to the left.
The tall, slim proportions of the figures and
Athena's high waistline in particular call for a date in
the third quarter of the fourth century (cf. nos. 36,
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1839) 268 no. 298, fig. 298 (drwg.);
Müller and Schöll, 63 no. 44, 84; E. Curtius and T. Panofka,
3 (1845) 129-30, pl. 33.1 (drwg.); L. Stephani, AZ
(1845) 76; F. von Duhn, AZ
35 (1877) 170 n. 5; P. Foucart,
2 (1878) 40; Sybel, 63-64 no. 333; Heydemann, 174-75 no. 453; Friederichs and Wolters, 397 no. 1195; Le Bas,
pl. 37 (drwg.); RE
5 (1903) 158 s.v. Demos (von Schoeffer);
Kastriotis, 383 no. 2407; Svoronos, 640 no. 371, pl. 148.4;
Süsserott, 96 n. 16, 113-14, pl. 18.3; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254(q);
, 238 n. 1158; AM
94 (1979) 49-75, pl.
7; Palagia, Euphranor
, 63; SEG
I, 434-35 no.
2, s.v. Academos (U. Kron); III, 379 no. 46, pl. 274, s.v.
Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); R. Vollkommer, Herakles
in the Art of Classical Greece
(1988) 53 no. 392; Meyer, 292
A 94, pl. 28.2.
Honorary decree Athens, NM 2955 3rd q.
4th c. Plate 75
From Akropolis. Part of top, right edge preserved, otherwise broken all around and back. Bottom now partly encased in plaster and attached to modern base with dowel in bottom, 0.035 from right edge. Relief bordered on right by
0.05 wide anta supporting 0.12 high entablature. Surface
weathered, with accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.32, p.w. 0.36, p.th. 0.10, relief h. 0.035.
The subject of the relief indicates that it came from
an honorary decree. On the right stands Athena; only
her head, torso, and arms are preserved. She turns
slightly toward the left and with her right hand crowns
a smaller figure who is not preserved. Her left hand,
broken off at the wrist, probably rested on the rim of
her shield. She wears a peplos and an aegis without
gorgoneion draped diagonally over her right shoulder and under her left arm (for this type see no. 140). The high placement of her belt and the weight and
thickness of the drapery place the relief in the third
quarter of the fourth century (cf. nos 36, 38, 40).
Schöne, 42 no. 77, pl. 16 (drwg.); Sybel, 429 no. 6963;
Friederichs and Wolters, 387 no. 1169; Le Bas, pl. 48.1
(drwg.); E. Reisch, ÖJh
(1898) 76; Walter, Beschreibung
13; Svoronos, 658 no. 416, pl. 192.4; Mitropoulou, Contributions
, 56 no. 8a, fig. 13; Meyer, 299 A 121, pl. 48.2.
Honorary decree (?) Svoronos, 616 no. 251
Athens, NM 1473 3rd q. 4th c. Plate 75
First recorded in 1860 in collection of Greek Archaeological Society. Part of left edge, top preserved, bottom now set
in plaster, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on left by
0.03-0.035 wide anta supporting entablature with pediment.
Inscribed on architrave over figure on left: ΒΟΛΕ
fairly fresh but chipped, corroded in places, with some
accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.37, p.w.
0.265, th. 0.13, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.008.
The subject of the relief suggests that its lost inscription was an honorary decree. On the far left the figure identified by inscribed label as Boule turns slightly toward the right. Her left hand is raised to shoulder
height and holds the edge of the himation she wears
like a veil over her head. The same arrangement of
drapery, continuing over the right upper arm and held
with a triangular overfold at the waist, also occurs on
another figure in a document relief (no. 49), who is
accompanied by Demos and is therefore almost certainly also Boule. Next to her on the right is Athena, also turned slightly toward the right. Her raised left
hand holds her spear; her right hand is propped on
her hip. She wears a peplos, aegis with gorgoneion, a
shoulder mantle, and Corinthian helmet. Both figures
direct their attention toward the small male figure in
a himation, probably the honorand of the missing
inscription, turned toward them on the right. He raises
his right hand in adoration. To judge from the remains of the pediment above the relief, there would have been room for at least one more figure, almost
certainly Demos, on the far right; Boule is very unlikely to have been depicted without him.
Although the spelling Bole for Boule generally dies
out after the middle of the fourth century, the thick,
coarse folds of the drapery with interior creases and
the tall, high-waisted figures argue for a date in the
third quarter of the fourth century (cf. nos. 38, 40, 46, 49).
P. Pervanoglu, AZ
16 (1860) 110-11; Schöne, 48-49 no. 94,
pl. 22 (drwg.); C. Daremberg and E. Saglio, Dictionnaire
des antiquités grecques et romaines
(Paris 1875) I, 743-44
s.v. Boule, fig. 872 (drwg.); A. Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 561;
Sybel, 64 no. 337; Farnell I, 351-52; E. Reisch, ÖJh
5 (1902) 4-5 no. 1216 (Löwy); Kastriotis, 262 no.
1473; O. Walter, ÖJbBeibl
14 (1911) 60; Beschreibung
Svoronos, 616 no. 251, pl. 109.2; Picard IV.2, 1256 n. 2 on
1257; Hamdorf, 95 no. 258(a); Mitropoulou, Contributions
49; U. Kron, AM
94 (1979) 51 n. 9; O. Palagia, Hesperia
(1982) 109, pl. 36d; LIMC
III, 146 no. 1, pl. 125, s.v. Boule
(V. Komninos); Meyer, 303-4 A 136, pl. 41.1; L. J. Roccos,
60 (1991) 409 no. 4, pl. 109.
Decree of the deme Acharnai concerning the
sanctuary of Ares and Athena Areia
21.519 Athens, École française Inv. I 6
3rd q. 4th c. Plate 76
Two joining fragments, discovered in Attica in 1932, exact
provenance unknown. Acquired in 1932 by L. Robert,
shortly thereafter by l'École française. All of top, most of
both edges preserved, broken along bottom of inscription,
back set into modern wall. Relief bordered by 0.05 wide
antae, above by single course with first line of heading and
pediment with akroteria. Horizontal sima inscribed ΘΕΟΙ
Traces of paint on pediment: egg and dart on ovolo, solid
colour in pediment. Paint on relief: blue background, red
shield and cuirass of Ares. Surface corroded, covered with
brown iron stain. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.73,
h. of relief (panel only) 0.265, w. 0.39 (top), 0.42 (bottom),
0.435 (pediment), th. (before set into wall, according to
Robert) 0.065 (top), 0.06 (bottom), relief h. 0.004, h. of
letters 0.004-0.006 (line 1), 0.009 (line 2), 0.006 (lines 3ff.).
The decree of the deme Acharnai concerns the construction of altars to Ares and Athena Areia at their
sanctuary in Acharnai, which is where the stele was
probably originally set up; no. 177, which was found
with it, was dedicated by the priest of the sanctuary.
The relief depicts Athena crowning Ares, who is
shown in hoplite armour (cf. nos. 125, reportedly
found in Acharnai, and no. 139, from Athens, which
probably also depict Ares). There are at least two
parallels in document reliefs for the motif of deities
or personifications crowning others of their rank (nos.
38, 133). Athena stands on the right and turns slightly
toward the left. She wears a short-sleeved chiton,
peplos, aegis with gorgoneion, and an Attic helmet.
With her right hand she places a crown on Ares' head.
Her left hand rests on the rim of her shield. Ares is
a beardless figure of the same scale who turns slightly
toward Athena. He wears a short chiton, cuirass, and
a chlamys draped over both shoulders, and he once
held a painted spear in his raised right hand. His left
hand rests on his shield.
The tall, slim, high-waisted figures, the flat,
unrevealing drapery with its straight, sharply etched
folds, the coarse featured heads, and the flat frame of
the relief are characteristic of a number of document
reliefs from the third quarter of the fourth century
(cf. nos. 36, 38, 145-148). The figure types particularly resemble those of the relief of 340/39 honouring Phokinos, Nikandros, and Dexippos (no. 36), but the
clear differences in the quality of the two reliefs
suggest a workshop relationship rather than the presence of a single hand. The Athena, however, is so close to the Athena of no. 144 that the two reliefs
may have been the work of the same sculptor.
L. Robert, Études épigraphiques et philologiques
(1938) 293-96, pl. 1; Tod II, 204; M. Guarducci, RivFil
39 (1961) 63 n.
6; Picard IV.2, 1256 n. 2 on p. 1257, 1262 n. 6 on p. 1263,
fig. 493; G. Daux, Charesterion A. K Orlandos
87-90, pls. 3, 4; SEG
21.519; E. B. Harrison, AJA
53; Frel, Les sculpteurs anonymes
, 35 no. 213, pl. 23;
Schmaltz, 33 n. 45; B. Holtzmann, BCH
96 (1972) 73-79,
figs. 1, 2; Thompson and Wycherley, Agora XIV: The Agora
(1972) 165; Harrison, ‘Eponymous Heroes’, 77;
U. Kron, AM
94 (1979) 51 n. 9; LIMC
II, 483 no. 65, s.v.
Ares (P. Bruneau), 1013 no. 610, pl. 365, s.v. Athena (P.
34.104; Meyer, 304 A 137, pl. 41.2; I. Beck,
Ares in Vasenmalerei, Relief und Rundplastik
101-2, 106-7, 114, 126-7.
Athens honours Megalopolitans IG II2 161
Athens, EM 70295 mid-3rd q. 4th c. Plate 76
Two non-joining fragments: a (EM 7029a
), found in 1860
in excavations east of Erechtheion, b (EM 7029
), found on
Akropolis in 1880. Fragment a preserves part of top, right
edge of relief, otherwise broken all around, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on right by 0.0375 wide anta, above
by 0.075 wide entablature inscribed with first two lines
of heading and [ΘΕΟ
. Surface worn, corroded. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.23, p.w. 0.21, th. 0.11, relief
h. 0.005, h. of letters 0.009.
The very fragmentary inscription concerns honours
for the Poimenidai and other Megalopolitans. On the
right stands Athena, preserved only from the hips up,
turning slightly toward the left. She wears a peplos,
aegis, and Attic helmet. Her right arm, broken off
just below the elbow, was extended, perhaps to crown
one or more of the honorands on the left. The opaque
drapery with sharply cut lines radiating from Athena's
belt is characteristic of the plainer drapery style that
begins in the middle of the fourth century (cf. nos.
28, 29). The Athena type, the low relief, and flat frame
link the relief with several others from the middle to
the third quarter of the century (nos. 36, 143), of
which no. 143 may be by the same hand.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1859) 1878 no. 3639; U. Köhler,
(1880) 320 no. 7; Sybel, 351-52 no. 5225; IG
103b; A. Wilhelm, ÖJhBeibl
(1898) 45; Binneboeßel, 12
no. 52, 20, 56, 58-59; Svoronos, 666 no. 435 (i), pl. 210.3;
Lambrechts, pl. 10; Frel, Les sculpteurs anonymes
, 35 no.
214; B. Holtzmann, BCH
96 (1972) 74 n. 1; Meyer, 299 A
120, pl. 48.4.
Catalogue of liturgists (?) IG II2 417 (?)
Athens, NM 2958 last q. 4th c. Plate 5
Two (?) non-joining fragments: NM 2958
(with relief), from
Akropolis, EM 7166
(IG II2 417
), found in 1839 west of
Parthenon. Part of top, right edge of relief preserved, otherwise broken all around. Relief bordered on right by 0.0325
wide anta supporting 0.035 high entablature, below by 0.045
wide moulding consisting of taenia and ovolo. Architrave
. Surface slightly worn, chipped. White,
medium-grained marble. NM 2958
: p.h. 0.385, p.w. 0.355,
th. 0.11 (moulding bottom), 0.105 (top); relief h. 0.02; EM
: p.h. 0.39, p.w. 0.33, th. 0.165, h. of letters 0.006.
The moulding and the continuation of the stele below it indicate that the relief belonged to an inscription, but it is uncertain whether its usual association
with IG II2 417
, a list of two men from each phyle
concerned with a liturgy called the eutaxia, is correct.
The female figure on the right is identified by the
inscribed label on the architrave above as Eutaxia, a
personification of the discipline of the military and
the gymnasium, a quality particularly associated with
the ephebes. By the late fourth century it was also a
term for a liturgy, which Palagia interpreted as sponsorship of a festival event involving armed contestants (JHS
95  181-82). Eutaxia is frontal, her head turned in near-profile view toward the left. Her
weight has shifted to her left leg in such a way that
her left hip swings outward emphatically. She wears
a high-girt chiton with shoulder cords and a himation
with a triangular overfold draped low across her torso.
Her right hand is raised and points toward the left. In
her left hand she holds a broken, unidentified object.
Further left is a male figure of the same scale, also
wearing a himation with triangular overfold, who leans
on a staff held crutch-like under his left arm. His
right arm, completely broken off, was raised and
probably crowned the smaller male figure on the left.
His head is entirely broken away but appears to have
been inclined toward the honorand. Kron suggested
that the figure is a phyle hero because the eutaxia was
a phyle responsibility, but because the liturgists for
all ten phylai were listed in IG II2 417
, the figure is
more likely to be Demos (cf. nos. 49, 54, 117, 126,
150, 172, possibly nos. 23, 45).
On the far left is a much smaller male figure whose
upper body and head are broken away. He wears a
short chiton and a mantle draped over his left arm;
his left hand rests on the rim of his shield. If the relief
belongs with IG II2 417
, this figure should represent
the victors being honoured by Demos and Eutaxia;
his dress and the tripod mounted on a column in the
background refer to the contest. Cf. the similar relief
from a dedication of victorious prytaneis (no. 97), in
which a single figure represents the prytaneis and a
hydria in the background represents their prize.
The very high-waisted, pear-shaped figure of
Eutaxia, her torsion, and the pronounced outward
swing of the hips of both Demos and Eutaxia are
characteristic of reliefs of the last quarter of the fourth
century (cf. nos. 47, 49). Palagia has noted the close
resemblance of the two male figures to figures in no.
149. As she pointed out, if the relief concerns a liturgy, it should date before Demetrios of Phaleron abolished the festival liturgies between 317/16 and
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1842) 560-61 no. 959, fig. 959
(drwg.); Rangabé II, 790-91 no. 1241; R. Förster, AdI
(1870) 219-21; Schöne, 34-36 no. 63, pl. 13 (drwg.); IG
172; A. Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 561, 568 n. 4, 569; Sybel,
426 no. 6931; Friederichs and Wolters, 391 no. 181; P.
9 (1888) 57; Le Bas, pl. 37.2 (drwg.); J.
60 (1905) 150-51; RE
6 (1909) 1491-92,
s.v. eutaxia (Waser); P. C. H. Schween, Die Epistaten des
Agons und der Palaestra in Literatur und Kunst
1911) 83; Walter, Beschreibung
, 39; Matz, 56; B. Schröder,
Der Sport im Altertum
(1927) pl. 10 b; Binneboeßel, 14-15
no. 64, 20, 71-73; Svoronos, 659 no. 417, pl. 193.3; O. Walter,
30 (1937) 55 n. 16; Süsserott, 122, 193, pl. 24.3; SEG
12.90; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254 (m); D. M. Lewis, Hesperia
(1968) 376 n. 25; Rauscher, 164; O. Palagia, JHS
180-82, pl. XXII b; Kron, Phylenheroen
, 237-38, 281 (9);
, 21 n. 104, 23, 58, 60-62, fig. 34; Hesperia
51 (1982) 107-9, pl. 35c; LIMC
II, 887 no. 337, s.v.
Asklepios (B. Holtzmann); III, 380 no. 59, pl. 275, s.v.
Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); IV, 120 no. 1, s.v. Eutaxia
(O. Palagia); Meyer, 306 A 142, pl. 42.1.
Content unidentified IG II2 546 Athens, EM 7258 last q. 4th c. (321/20 ?) Plate 80
Provenance unknown. Broken all around, back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by narrow, rounded, roughly carved band. Surface worn, with accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.32, p.h. of relief
0.08, p.w. 0.22, th. 0.12, relief h. 0.005, h. of letters 0.006.
The content of the fragmentary inscription is unclear;
it may have concerned the Dolopians (line 12). Most
of the heading is missing, but Meritt restored the
archon Archippos of 321/20 in line 2 and the missing
anagrapheus, Thrasykles of Thria, on the moulding
that originally would have crowned the relief.
The crudely carved relief depicts three figures. Two
of the figures are males of the same scale, wearing
himatia and preserved only from the knees down.
The figure on the left turns toward the left, the figure
next to him on the right turns toward the right. At
the broken right edge of the fragment is the foot of
an apparently smaller figure, perhaps an honorand,
turned toward the left. The identity and relationship
of the figures are unclear; there should have been
something on the the left side of the relief engaging
the attention of the figure who has turned in that
direction. The relief is too crude and fragmentary to
be dated by its style, but its handwerkliche quality
would not be out of place toward the end of the
fourth century (cf. nos. 43, 45).
II.5 245 b; Binneboeßel, 16 no. 72, 20; W. K. Pritchett
and B. D. Meritt, The Chronology of Hellenistic Athens
(1940) 4-6; Meritt, The Athenian Year
30 (1961) 290; S. Dow, HSCP
67 (1963) 43-45;
32 (1963) 351; SEG
21.304; N. C. Ashton, JHS
104 (1984) 153 n. 16; SEG
34.70; Meyer, 301 A 128.
The deme Eleusis honours the peripolarchos
Smikythion IG II2 1193 Eleusis, Archaeological Museum 5115 last q. 4th c. Plate 80
Two joining fragments of complete stele: upper fragment
found in Eleusis in 1883 excavations of Greek Archaeological Society; lower fragment found in Eleusis in 1888. Relief
bordered above by plain taenia and moulding, together 0.045
high. Back rough-picked. Surface somewhat worn, corroded,
with iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.95,
h. of relief 0.26, w. 0.305 (top), 0.315 (bottom), th. 0.065,
relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.005.
The decree, set up by the deme of Eleusis, honours
Smikythion for his services to the deme as peripolarchos or patrol commander and awards him a gold
crown. The demarch is charged with the responsibility of having the decree inscribed and set up in an
appropriate location (lines 27-31). Smikythion is
shown as a small bearded figure standing on the far
right, his right hand raised in adoration; his left hand
holds the end of his himation. He looks toward the
much larger figures of Demeter and Kore on the left.
Demeter, facing left, sits on a kiste. She wears a chiton
and himation. Her right hand holds the extended left
hand of Kore, standing before her on the left, or
perhaps they held a painted crown between them.
Kore is a nearly frontal figure holding a torch in her
right hand. She wears a chiton and over it a himation
completely covering her body and knotted under her
left arm. Demeter and Kore resemble the figures on
a decree of Eleusis honouring Derkylos of Hagnous
(no. 127), on votive reliefs, and on Panathenaic amphorae, all apparently dating from the second half of the fourth century. No. 34, an Athenian decree from
Eleusis, also depicts Demeter seated on a kiste. The
positions of the figures relative to each other vary,
but the figure types are similar and perhaps derived
from an Eleusinian cult group, as Kern and Jucker
have suggested. The very high-waisted proportions
of the figures and the generalized treatment of their
heavy drapery call for a date in the last quarter of the
fourth century (cf. nos. 45, 150, 153).
D. Philios, ArchEph
(1883) 133-36 no. 11 (39); ArchEph
(1888) 21-24 no. 39; P. Foucart, BCH
13 (1889) 265; Philios,
(1890) 82 n. 1; O. Kern, AM
17 (1892) 131, fig. 7
II.5 574 g; SIG
I3 356; P. Mingazzini, NSc
(1927) 312 b; SEG
3.119; Kirchner, 21 no. 69, pl. 31; E. Bielefeld,
Wissentschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universität Greifswald
(1951/52) 8 no. 26; F. Mitchel, Hesperia
33 (1964) 343, pl.
65b; H. Metzger, Recherches sur l'imagerie athénienne
35 no. 11; SEG
22.119; A. Peschlow-Bindokat, JdI
118, 152 R46; K. Kanta, Eleusis: Myth, Mysteries, History,
(1979) 106 no. 5115; Palagia, Euphranor
, 30; I.
95 (1980) 462-63, figs. 22-24; SEG
IV, 868 no. 279, pl. 580, s.v. Demeter (L. Beschi); Meyer,
298 A 117, pl. 38.1.
Honorary decree for Artikleides IG II2 171
Athens, NM 1396 last q. 4th c. Plate 81
Found near Hephaisteion in 1891 construction of Athens-Piraeus railway. Top, both edges of relief, and right edge of
inscription preserved. Broken bottom encased in plaster,
back rough-picked. Relief bordered by tapering 0.03-0.035
wide antae supporting 0.055 high entablature with antefixes,
architrave inscribed: ΑΜΦΙΑΡΑΟΣ ΑΡΤΙΚΛΕΙΔΗΣ ΥΓΙΕΙΑ
. Below, 0.0375 wide moulding inscribed [ΘΕΟ
. Surface worn, flaked, with dark stains, accretions. White, medium-grained
marble. p.h. 0.44 (relief), p.h. of relief 0.40, w. 0.47 (relief),
th. 0.12 (relief), 0.105 (inscription), relief h. 0.03, h. of letters
All that remains of the inscription is a fragmentary
heading, but the relief indicates that it is an honorary
decree for an otherwise unknown Artikleides, probably for his services to the cult of Amphiaraos. On
the right stands Hygieia, who turns slightly toward
the left and with her right hand places a crown on
Artikleides' head. In her left hand she holds an
oinochoe. She wears a high-girt chiton and himation
with a triangular overfold. The much smaller figure
of Artikleides stands behind a low altar. His right
arm, broken off at the elbow, is extended and may
have held a phiale. His association with the altar lends
some support to Kutsch's suggestion that he was a
priest. On the other side of the altar is Amphiaraos,
who leans on a staff held crutch-like under his left
arm. His right hand, broken off at the wrist, is extended and may also have held a phiale. His himation is wrapped around his left arm and crosses his torso
with a triangular overfold. The figure closely resembles an Asklepios-like type for Amphiaraos represented by two fragmentary fourth-century statues
found at the Amphiaraion at Oropos (B. Petrakos,
Ho Oropos kai to Hieron tou Amphiaraou
nos. 10, 11, pls. 34b, 35a; cf. also no. 132.). The statue
of Amphiaraos that Pausanias (1.8.2) saw in the Agora
may also have been of this familiar type and could
have provided the model for the relief, which its find-spot suggests was erected nearby. (Cf. NM 1383
, Svoronos, pl. 38.4, a fragmentary votive relief depicting Hygieia that was found at the same time.)
Although the inscription has been dated to the first
half of the fourth century on the basis of its letter
forms, the very tall, slim proportions of the figures,
the very high-waisted Hygieia, and the emphatic
outward swing of Amphiaraos' hip suggest a date in
the last quarter of the fourth century. The three figures resemble the honorand, Demos, and Boule in
the more crudely worked relief of the honorary decree for Asklepiodoros (no. 49) dated 323/22, and the
stance of Amphiaraos is also close to that of Deloptes
in the decree of the orgeones of Bendis of 329/28 (no.
47). Cf. also no. 150.
H. Lolling, ArchDelt
(1891) 89 no. 23; A. Körte, AM
(1893) 253-56; IG
II.5 83c; L. Kjellberg, Asklepios,
II (1897/98) 26; EA
(1902) 4 no. 1215 (Löwy); Kastriotis, 244-45 no. 1396; V.
Staïs, Marbres et bronzes du Musée National
no. 1396; F. Kutsch, Attische Heilgötter und Heilheroen
(1913) 39-41, 121 no. 248, 135 no. 13; Binneboeßel, 15 no.
65, 20, 70, 72, 73; Svoronos, 347-48 no. 93, pl. 50.4; O.
30 (1937) 55 n. 16; Süsserott, 119; Walter,
32 (1940) 15 n. 48; Wycherley, Agora III
, 49 no. 105;
U. Hausmann, Kunst und Heiltum: Untersuchungen zu den
(1948) 96, 168 no. 20 (A45);
Picard IV.2, 1265; Hamdorf, 107 no. 394; Rauscher, 164-65; LIMC
I, 702 no. 65, pl. 565, s.v. Amphiaraos (I. Krauskopf); II, 888 no. 372, s.v. Asklepios (B. Holtzmann); Meyer, 306 A 143, pl. 42.2.
The deme Aixone honours the choregoi
Auteas and Philoxenides
Athens, EM 13262 313/12 (?) Plate 81
Found in Glyphada in 1941. Broken at bottom, central, and
side akroteria; back rough-picked. Relief framed by antae
supporting pediment with palmette akroteria; theatre masks
inscribed on architrave. Two large olive wreaths
below text. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.96, p.h.
of relief 0.40, w. 0.36 (top), 0.40 (bottom), th. 0.05 (top),
0.06 (bottom), relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.006- 0.007.
The decree of the deme Aixone honours Auteas son
of Autokles and Philoxenides son of Philippos, successful choregoi for their choregia in the local Dionysia,
and awards each of them a 100-drachmai gold crown.
The stele was to have been set up in the local theatre
(lines 11-13 The relief depicts a young satyr carrying
an oinochoe toward a seated figure of Dionysos, who
holds a kantharos in his right hand. The satyr is depicted as a nude boy with a short tail. The youthful
Dionysos sits on a rock, with his left hand raised and
holding a sceptre. A long lock of hair hangs down
over his left shoulder, and he wears a wreath. Carved
in low relief on the architrave above the relief panel
are five comic masks.
The decree was passed in the archonship of
Theophrastos, but whether this is the archon of 340/39 or of 313/12 is not specified. Its editors accepted
the later date to which for prosopographical reasons
Kirchner assigned the contemporary decree from
Aixone that has the same archon, proposer, and
demarch (no. 155); the only other choregic decrees
from Aixone are dated 326/25 and 317/16 (IG II2
, 1200). Webster, however, has since argued for
the earlier date because the masks on the architrave
more closely resemble those of Middle than of New
Comedy. He also cited prosopographical arguments
to counter those for the later date, but they are not
conclusive. The style of the relief, with its stiff drapery and poorly articulated anatomy, is more consistent with the later date, although its frame with
flattened anta capitals resembles those of a group of
somewhat earlier reliefs (nos. 38, 143-148). It is not
by the same hand as no. 155.
N. Kyparissis and W. Peek, AM
66 (1941) 218-19 no. 1, pl.
73; Lippold, 276 n. 9; T. B. L. Webster, JHS
71 (1951) 222
n. 7; Studies in Later Greek Comedy
(1953) 75-76, pl. 3;
(1954) 193, 194; Greek Theatre Production
56, 61-62, 64-66, 73, 81, 117, 142, 182, pl. 19; AntK
(1960) 32, 34; Hesperia
29 (1960) 264, 265, 268, 272; M.
Bieber, A History of the Greek and Roman Theatre
51-52, fig. 215; C. W. J. Eliot, Coastal Demes of Attika: a
study of the policy of Kleisthenes
(1962) 218-19; Picard IV.2,
1266-67; A. Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of
2 (1968) 49, fig. 25; Guarducci, 49-51, fig. 3; A. D.
Trendall and Webster, Illustrations of Greek Drama
IV 8a, fig. p. 122; P. Ghiron-Bistagne, Recherches sur les
acteurs dans la Grèce antique
(1976) 86-90, 95, 96, 133, fig.
34; Zagdoun, FdD
IV.6, 60, fig. 41; Webster, Monuments
Illustrating Old and Middle Comedy
3 (1978) 118 AS 2;
III, 495 no. 854, pl. 403, s.v. Dionysos (C. Gasparri);
Whitehead, 235-52; Meyer, 305 A 141, pl. 44.2.
The deme Aixone honours Kallikrates and
Aristokrates IG II2 1202 St Petersburg,
Hermitage A 1105 313/12 (?) Plate 82
Found at Trachones in 1864 excavations of Count
Blourdorff, Russian Minister to Greece. Both edges of relief and inscription preserved, broken top and bottom. Relief
bordered by antae. Reportedly Pentelic marble. p.h. 0.66,
w. 0.40, th. 0.16, h. of letters 0.007. Not examined.
The deme of Aixone honours Kallikrates son of
Glaukon and Aristokrates son of Aristophanes for
their service to the deme. The decree was to have
been set up by the deme in the theatre of Aixone
(lines 18-21), which was the site of an active rural
Dionysia (see also no. 154 and IG II2 1198
The subject of the relief and the location of the stele
suggest that the honours were related to the festival.
Whitehead's suggestion that these were the choregoi
who lost to Auteas and Philoxenides (no. 154) in the
festival's competition is unconvincing because Kallikrates and Aristokrates are awarded the more expensive 500-drachmai wreaths.
Two figures face each other on either side of a small
altar. The figure on the left, whose head is missing, is
a satyr or silenos whose furry body is visible above
and below his himation. Meyer suggested that his goat-like character was intended as a play on the name
Aixone; the Greek word for goat is ἄιξ
steps toward the altar and with his right hand prepares to pour from an oinochoe into the kantharos
held by the other, larger figure, probably Dionysos,
who is preserved only from the waist down. He wears
a himation and in his left hand holds an object which
may be his thyrsos. Other traces of relief at the upper
edge of this fragment have been interpreted as a scroll,
but it is difficult to see how this would be held, and
these may instead be traces of drapery thrown over
the figure's shoulder. The large krater in the left corner of the relief, appropriate for its function as a wine-mixing bowl, probably represents a prize in the Dionysia's dramatic competition (cf. no. 97).
The decree dates from the archonship of Theophrastos and thus from either 340/39 or 313/12. Köhler in
II and Kirchner following him in IG
II2 chose the
later date largely for prosopographical reasons: a
brother of the proposer Glaukides is mentioned in a
catalogue of ca. 320 (IG II2 1955
and Aristokrates himself proposed a decree in honour of Demetrios of Phaleron in 317 (IG II2 1201
Webster, however, has argued for the earlier date for
no. 54, which was passed at the same time, primarily
on the basis of the style of the relief, the types of
masks depicted on its architrave, and some inconclusive prosopographical arguments. The drapery of the figures and the emphatic swing in the satyr's stance suggest that the later date is the more likely (cf. nos.
A. S. Rusopoulos, BdI
(1864) 129-32; E. Miller, RA
(1865) 154-59; IG
II 585; A. Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 568
n. 2; Binneboeßel, 16 no. 71, 20, 23, 77; K. Schefold in
, pl. 785 b; W. Peek, AM
66 (1941) 218; C. Picard,
55 (1942) 312; T. B. L. Webster, JHS
71 (1951) 222 n.
29 (1960) 257; C. W. J. Eliot, Coastal Demes of
Attika: a study of the policy of Kleisthenes
Webster, Monuments Illustrating Tragedy and Satyr Play
(1962) 33-34 no. AS 7; Picard IV.2, 1202, 1266-67; A.
Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens
(1968) 49; V. von Graeve, Der Alexandersarkoph und seine
(1970) 168, pl. 80; P. Ghiron-Bistagne, Recherches
sur les acteurs dans la Grèce antique
(1976) 88-90, fig. 35;
26.133; Whitehead, 218-19; Meyer, 306 A 140, pl.
Lease of Piraeus property IG II2 2496
Athens, NM 1477 last q. 4th c. Plate 83
Found in 1866 near port of Zea in Piraeus. Both edges, top
preserved, broken (?) bottom set in plaster, back smooth.
Stele capped by 0.04 high moulding consisting of rough
taenia and ovolo. Unbordered relief panel in upper right
corner of stele. Surface somewhat worn, chipped. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.45, h. of relief panel 0.125,
w. 0.28 (top, at moulding), 0.26 (top, below moulding),
0.275 (bottom), w. of relief panel 0.085, th. 0.075 -0.08, relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.005.
The inscription is a lease in which Eukrates, son of
Exekias of Aphidna, rents a shop and outbuildings in
Piraeus from eight Kytherian meritai, probably officials of the Attic deme of Kytheros rather than the distant island Kythera. The stele was to have been set
up ‘by the hero’ (lines 24-25), presumably the statue
of the hero for whom the Philippides of lines 1-2 was
The relief is very unusual in its position in the upper
right corner of the stele. On the right is a bearded (?)
figure, probably the same hero, seated on a chair
turned toward the left. In his extended right hand he
holds a kantharos. Opposite him on the left is a standing female figure. In her right hand she holds an
oinochoe, preparing to pour from it into the
kantharos. The lack of specific designations for the
priest and the hero in the document suggest that
they were well known to all concerned and that the
figures are representations of the hero and perhaps
the heroine of a local cult. Libation scenes are commonly found on votive reliefs dedicated to heroes
(B. Mitropoulou, Libation Scene with Oinochoe in
); in this context the libation may
refer to an oath and libation with which the business
of the lease was concluded.
The very tall proportions, the high-waisted female
figure (cf. nos. 45, 150, 553), and the superficial, generalized workmanship are characteristics of late fourth-century relief. The composition and the very flat, summary execution of the figures suggest that the
relief was carved by a sculptor of minor grave stelai
and marble lekythoi (cf. Schmaltz, pls. 41, 44).
C. Wescher, RA
14 (1866) 352-58 no. 5; A. Kirchhoff,
2 (1867) 169-73; Schöne, 56-57 no. 115, pl. 28
(drwg.); Heydemann, 271-74 no. 738; Sybel, 63 no. 331;
II 1058; Kastriotis, 263 no. 1477; SIG
3 1216; Svoronos, 596-98 no. 244, pl. 105.3; O. Palagia, Hesperia
107-10, pl. 36a; M. H. Jameson, Studies in Attic Epigraphy,
History and Topography presented to Eugene Vanderpool
, Suppl. 19 (1982) 72-73; Whitehead, 147-48, 383;
Meyer, 307 A 145; LIMC
VI, 170-71 no. 1, s.v. Kytheros
(A. Onassoglou); 583 no. 1, s.v. Misthosis (M. Luz Neira
Antiochis honours the taxiarch Prokleides
SEG 3.116 Athens, NM 3491 last q. 4th c. Plate 83
Found in 1922 in house foundations in neighbourhood of
Dourgouti, south of Fix brewery and on left bank of Ilissos.
Broken at bottom of inscription, back rough-picked. Relief
bordered by tapering 0.035-0.042 wide antae, above by
pediment, below by plain taenia and flattened ovolo, together 0.045 wide. Surface very worn, chipped, with red-brown iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.63, h. of relief 0.36, w. 0.36 (relief), 0.31 (inscription), th. 0.10
(relief), 0.095 (inscription), relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.004.
The decree records the honours of the elder epilektoi,
members of an elite corps of the infantry, of the phyle
Antiochis for their taxiarch Prokleides; he is given a
gold crown. On the right stands the nude frontal figure of Herakles, whose head is slightly turned toward the left. His right hand holds the top of his
club; its lower end rests on a rock. His lion skin is
draped over his left forearm (cf. no. 158). Opposite
him is a bearded figure wearing a himation who probably represents his son Antiochos; his large scale indicates that he is not the mortal honorand, and the
eponymous hero of the phyle bestowing the honours
is the most appropriate identification. His raised left
hand held a painted spear or staff. His right hand
rests on his hip. No standard type for Antiochos
emerges from known representations of him, but
E. B. Harrison has pointed out that in at least two
vase paintings he is shown with his hand on his hip
(‘Eponymous Heroes’, 78). Herakles is probably
present in the relief not only as the father of Antiochos
but also because the heroon of Antiochos was apparently associated with or even in the Herakles sanctuary in Kynosarges. This decree is one of at least three of Antiochis (SEG
3.115-17) found in the area of the
south bank of the Ilissos where the Herakleion is
believed to have been located, one of which (SEG
3.115) was to have been set up in the heroon. See also
no. 145, a document relief found there that must also
The squat figures with their large, almost caricatured
facial features and the stiff, straight drapery folds are
characteristic of the sometimes handwerkliche quality
of document reliefs in the second half of the fourth
century (cf. nos. 36, 43, 45). The pose of Herakles,
with his hip swung outward, suggests a date toward
the end of the century (cf. nos. 46, 47, 49). For other
phyle decrees, see nos. 53, 107, 128, 138, possibly 148.
C. Karouzos, ArchDelt
8 (1923) 85-102 no. 2, fig. 2; Kron,
, 191 n. 926, 192-93, 239, 279 An 5, pl. 28.1;
E. B. Harrison, ‘Eponymous Heroes’, 78; E. G. Pemberton,
76 (1981) 319, pl. 55d; LIMC
I, 852 no. 6, pl. 679, s.v.
Antiochos (E. B. Harrison); R. Vollkommer, Herakles in
the Art of Classical Greece
(1988) 53 no. 393; Meyer, 304-5 A 139; L. Tritle, AHB
4 (1989) 54-59.
Athens honours Sostr[atos] IG II2 419
Athens, EM 7221 last q. 4th c. Plate 83
From Akropolis. Part of left edge of relief and moulding
preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on left by
0.03 wide anta, below by taenia with first line of inscription
and ovolo, together 0.045 wide. Surface very worn, flaked,
chipped. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.39, p.h. of
relief 0.315, p.w. 0.32, th. 0.145 (relief), 0.125 (inscription),
relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.007.
The decree, of which only part of the first line is
preserved, is apparently a grant of proxeny for a man
whose name has been restored as Sostratos. On the
left stands the frontal figure of Herakles, probably
the hero of the honorand's home (cf. nos. 72, 111,
129, 133), leaning on the small end of his club held at
his hip with his right hand; the other end rests on a
rock. His lion skin is draped over his left arm (cf. no.
57). On the right is a female figure of the same scale,
probably Athena, of whom only the contour and
lower part of the right leg are preserved. She held her
spear in her right hand and probably turned toward
the honorand, who would have been in the missing
right side of the relief. The emphatic outward swing
of his hip is common in figures in the last quarter of
the fourth century (cf. nos. 47, 49).
H. Lolling, SBBerl
(1887) 1063; IG
II.5 200 c; Walter,
, 12, 16; Svoronos, 665 no. 433 (3), pl. 208.3;
Lambrechts, pl. 15; LIMC
IV, 747 no. 329, pl. 467, s.v.
Herakles (O. Palagia); Meyer, 297-98 A 114, pl. 36.2; O.
9 (1990) 56-57.
Tribal or deme decree (?) IG II2 598
Location unknown late 4th c.
Found on east side of Akropolis. p.h. 0.175, p.w. 0.175, th.
0.08, h. of letters 0.006. Not examined.
According to Wilhelm, the very fragmentary inscription apparently concerned the leasing of a temenos. Because its orator lacks both patronymic and demotic, Henry suggested that it was a tribal or deme decree.
Kirchner in IG
dated the inscription to the end of the
fourth century. Two male feet were all that remain of
A. Wilhelm, AM
39 (1914) 180; Binneboeßel, 16 no. 76;
, 61; SEG
26.91; Meyer, 314 A 178.
Honorary decree Athens, AM 2668
4th c. (?) Plate 95
Probably from Akropolis. Part of top preserved, back rough-picked. Badly damaged border above, 0.06 wide. Surface worn. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.19, p.w. 0.16, th. 0.11, relief h. 0.01.
None of the inscription is preserved, but the subject
of the relief indicates that it belonged to an honorary
decree. All that remains is the right arm of a figure,
perhaps Athena, extending a crown toward the left
where the honorand must once have stood. Walter
believed that the deeply cut contours around the relief indicated unfinished work.
Sybel, 432 no. 7004; Walter, Beschreibung
, 23 no. 33, fig.
33; U. Kron, AM
95 (1979) 51 n. 7; Meyer, 313 A 175.
Content unidentified Athens, EM 2785
4th c. (?) Plate 96
Provenance unknown. Left edge of moulding, part of battered left edge of relief preserved, otherwise broken all
around and back. Relief bordered below by taenia inscribed
] and ovolo, together 0.085 wide. Surface very worn,
battered, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h.
0.23, p.w. 0.18, p.th. 0.125, relief h. ca. 0.02.
The body of the inscription is not preserved. On the
left is a seated figure facing right, preserved only from
the thighs down. The figure is probably male; there
are no folds of an undergarment showing beneath
the himation. He appears to be leaning somewhat
forward, with his right hand resting on the rocky seat.
The figure is too worn for even an approximate dating.
Svoronos, 670 no. 451 (5), pl. 223.5; Meyer, 311-12 A 168,
Honorary decree for a phylarch (?) IG II2
12523 formerly Athens, NM, no inv. no.; current location unknown 4th c.
From Akropolis. Upper part of stele with relief and pediment with rosette in centre. Pentelic marble. h. 0.34, w. 0.27. Not examined.
The very fragmentary inscription may have been an
honorary decree for Prokles Gniphonos. Because the
relief represents three riders moving toward the right,
it has been suggested that he was a phylarch.
P. Wolters, AM
12 (1887) 268; H. Lolling, SBBerl
II.5 4324; O. Walter, AM
66 (1941) 152 n. 1; W.
67 (1942) 131 no. 292; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia
(1946) 217 n. 30; Langenfaß-Vuduroglu, 36 no. 70.
Athens honours Telesias of Troizen IG II2
971 Athens, EM 8043 + 8044 + 8045 ca. 140/39 Plate 96
Four fragments: a (EM 8043
+ 8044 + 8045) found in
1876-77 excavations on South Slope of Akropolis, b (EM
) reported from same vicinity in 1877/78. Part of top,
left edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief in pediment.
Four crowns between pediment and inscription, eight
crowns below inscription, ninth broken away. Surface
worn, chipped. Grey, medium-grained marble. Fragment
a: p.h. 0.59, w. 0.52, th. 0.14, relief h. 0.009, h. of letters
The partially preserved decree is apparently a reaffirmation for Telesias of Troizen of the Athenian citizenship previously given to one of his ancestors.
Although the decree is securely dated to the eighth
prytany of the archonship of Hagnotheos (line 9),
140/39, Osborne suggested that the monument itself
may be considerably later, for in some of the crowns
below the text are records of Telesias' positions in
Athenian state religion that he could not have held
The relief refers particularly to Telesias' Athenian
citizenship. The only surviving example of mythological narrative in a document relief, it depicts
Theseus lifting the rock which covered the gnorismata
by which he would prove his own Athenian citizenship, an event that took place in his youth in Troizen. In the centre of the relief the nude Theseus turns
toward the right and pushes against a tall, oblong
rock, revealing on the ground beneath it the sword
and shoes of his father Aigeus, king of Athens. There
was a bronze statue of Theseus lifting the rock on the
Akropolis (Paus. 1.27.8
), and the deed is also depicted
in vase painting. Although the stele is ambitious in
size and ornament, the relief itself is crudely cut, the
anatomy distorted, and the shoes and sword barely
S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
(1876/77) 522-25 no. 6;
6 (1877/78) 369-70 no. 3; Sybel, 299 no. 4049;
II 1358; F. von Duhn, AZ
35 (1877) 171-72 no. 104;
W. Hartel, Studien über attisches Staatsrecht und
(1878) 36; IG
II.5 458b; A. Wilhelm,
Beiträge zur griechischen Inschrtftenkunde
Svoronos, 667 no. 442 (5), pl. 217.5; T. Ritti, MemLinc
(1969/70) 268 no. 5, pl. II fig. 2; C. Sourvinou-Inwood, JHS
91 (1971) 94-109; SEG
29.120; Osborne, Naturalization
, D 102; SEG
32.134; Meyer, 315-16
C 2; SEG