in the belief that men would eagerly throng to the
coast, and put themselves under the protection of the council; and, in fact, adventurers were delayed, through fear of infringing the rights of a powerful company.1
While the English
monopolists were wrangling about their exclusive privileges, the first permanent colony on the soil of New England
was established without the knowledge of the corporation, and without the aid of King James.
The Reformation in England
—an event which had been long and gradually prepared among the people by the opinions and followers of Wickliffe
, and in the government by increasing and successful resistance to the usurpations of ecclesiastical jurisdiction—was at length abruptly established during the reign and in conformity with the passions of a despotic monarch.
The acknowledgment of the right of private judgment,2
far from being the cause of the separation from Rome
, was one of its latest fruits.
Luther was more dogmatical than his opponents; though the deep philosophy with which his mind was imbued, repelled the use of violence to effect conversion in religion.
He was wont to protest against propagating reform by
persecution and massacres; and, with wise moderation, an admirable knowledge of human nature, a familiar and almost ludicrous quaintness of expression, he would deduce from his great principle of justification by faith alone the sublime doctrine of the freedom of conscience.3
Yet Calvin, many years after, anxious-