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[80] awakened by the brilliant pageantry with
Chap. III.}
which King Philip was introduced into London, excited Richard Eden1 to gather into a volume the history of the most memorable maritime expeditions. Religious restraints, the thirst for rapid wealth, the desire of strange adventure, had driven the boldest spirits of Spain to the New World; their deeds had been commemorated by the copious and accurate details of the Spanish historians; and the English, through the alliance of their sovereign made familiar with the Spanish language and literature, became emulous of Spanish success beyond the ocean.

The firmness of Elizabeth seconded the enterprise

of her subjects. They were rendered the more proud and intractable for the short and unsuccessful effort to make England an appendage to Spain; and the triumph of Protestantism, quickening the spirit of nationality, gave a new impulse to the people. England, no longer the ally, but the antagonist of Philip, claimed the glory of being the mistress of the northern seas, and prepared to extend its commerce to every clime. The queen strengthened her navy, filled her arsenals, and encouraged the building of ships in England: she animated the adventurers to Russia and to Africa by her special protection; and while her subjects were en-
1561 to 1568.
deavoring to penetrate into Persia by land, and enlarge their commerce with the East2 by combining the use of ships and caravans, the harbors of Spanish America were at the same time visited by their privateers in pursuit of the rich galleons of Spain, and at least from thirty to fifty English ships came annually to the bays
and banks of Newfoundland.3

1 Eden's Decades, published in 1555.

2 Eden and Willes. The Voyages of Persia, traveled by the Merchantes of London, &c. in 1561, 1567, 1568, fol. 321, and ff.

3 Parkhurst, in Hakluyt, III. 171

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