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[414] a liturgy into Scotland, and compelling the uncom-
Chap. X.} 1637. July 23.
promising disciples of Knox to listen to prayers translated from the Roman missal. The first attempt at reading the new service in the cathedral of Edinburgh was the signal for that series of momentous events which promised to restore liberty to England, and give peace to the colonies. The movement began, as great revolutions almost always do, from the ranks of the people. ‘What, ye villain!’ shouted the old women at the dean, as he read the liturgy, ‘will ye say mass in my lug?’—‘A pape, a pape!’ resounded the multitude, incensed against the bishop; ‘stane him, stane him!’ The churchmen narrowly escaped martyrdom. The tumult spreads; the nobles of Scotland take advantage of the excitement of the people to advance their ambition. The national covenant is published,
1638.
and is signed by the Scottish nation, almost without distinction of rank or sex; the defences of despotism are broken down; the flood washes away every vestige of ecclesiastical oppression. Scotland rises in arms for a holy war, and enlists religious enthusiasm under its banner in its contest against a despot, who has neither a regular treasury, nor an army, nor the confidence of his people. The wisest of his subjects esteem the insurgents as their friends and allies. There is now
1639.
no time to oppress New England; the throne itself totters;—there is no need to forbid emigration; England is at once become the theatre of wonderful events, and many fiery spirits, who had fled for a refuge to the colonies, rush back to share in the open struggle for liberty. In the following years, few passengers came over; the reformation of church and state, the attain-
Chap. X.} 1643.
der of Strafford, the impeachment of Laud, the great

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