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294. A Pronoun indicates some person or thing without either naming or describing it. Pronouns are derived from a distinct class of roots, which seem to have denoted only ideas of place and direction (§ 228. 2), and from which nouns or verbs can very rarely be formed. They may therefore stand for Nouns when the person or thing, being already present to the senses or imagination, needs only to be pointed out, not named.

Some pronouns indicate the object in itself, without reference to its class, and have no distinction of gender. These are Personal Pronouns. They stand syntactically for Nouns, and have the same construction as nouns.

Other pronouns designate a particular object of a class, and take the gender of the individuals of that class. These are called Adjective Pronouns. They stand for Adjectives, and have the same construction as adjectives.

Others are used in both ways; and, though called adjective pronouns, may also be treated as personal, taking, however, the gender of the object indicated.

In accordance with their meanings and uses, Pronouns are classified as follows:—

Personal Pronouns (§ 295). Interrogative Pronouns (§ 333).
Demonstrative Pronouns (§ 296). Relative Pronouns (§ 303).
Reflexive Pronouns (§ 299). Indefinite Pronouns (§ 309).
Possessive Pronouns (§ 302).

Personal Pronouns

295. The Personal Pronouns have, in general, the same constructions as nouns.

a. The personal pronouns are not expressed as subjects, except for distinction or emphasis:—

  1. vocō, I call you. But,—
  2. quis vocat? ego vocō, who is calling me? I (emphatic) am calling you.

b. The personal pronouns have two forms for the genitive plural, that in -um being used partitively (§ 346), and that in -ī oftenest objectively (§ 348):—

  1. mâior vestrum, the elder of you.
  2. habētis ducem memorem vestrī, oblītum suī; (Cat. 4.19), you have a leader who thinks (is mindful) of you and forgets (is forgetful of) himself.
  3. pars nostrum, a part (i.e. some) of us.

Note 1.--The genitives nostrum , vestrum , are occasionally used objectively (§ 348): as,— “cupidus vestrum(Verr. 3.224) , fond of you;cūstōs vestrum(Cat. 3.29) , the guardian of you (your guardian).

Note 2.--“One of themselves” is expressed by ūnus ex suīs or ipsīs (rarely ex ), or ūnus suōrum .

c. The Latin has no personal pronouns of the third person except the reflexive . The want is supplied by a Demonstrative or Relative (§§ 296. 2, 308. f

Demonstrative Pronouns

296. Demonstrative Pronouns are used either adjectively or substantively.

    As adjectives, they follow the rules for the agreement of adjectives and are called Adjective Pronouns or Pronominal Adjectives (§§ 286, 287):—
    1. hōc proeliō factō, after this battle was fought (this battle having been fought).
    2. eōdemproeliō, in the same battle.
    3. ex eīsaedificiīs, out of those buildings.
    As substantives, they are equivalent to personal pronouns. This use is regular in the oblique cases, especially ofis:—
    1. Caesar et exercitus êius, Cæsar and his army (not suus ). [But, Caesar exercitumsuum dīmīsit, Cæsar disbanded his [own] army.]
    2. obsidēs abeīs dentur (B. G. 1.14) , if hostages should be given by them (persons just spoken of).
    3. sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī; (id. 1.10), they (those just mentioned) are the first [inhabitants] across the Rhone.
    4. ille minimum propter adulēscentiam poterat (id. 1.20), he (emphatic) had very little power, on account of his youth.
a. An adjective pronoun usually agrees with an appositive or predicate noun, if there be one, rather than with the word to which it refers (cf. § 306):—
  1. hīc locus est ūnus quō perfugiant; hīc portus, haec arx, haec āra sociōrum (Verr. 5.126) , this is the only place to which they can flee for refuge; this is the haven, this the citadel, this the altar of the allies.
  2. rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns (Hor. Ep. 1.17.45) , this was the head of things, this the source.
  3. eam sapientiam interpretantur quam adhūc mortālis nēmō est cōnsecūtus [for id. ..quod] (Lael. 18) , they explain that [thing] to be wisdom which no man ever yet attained.

297. The main uses of hīc , ille , iste , and is are the following:—

a. Hīc is used of what is near the speaker (in time, place, or thought). It is hence called the demonstrative of the first person.

It is sometimes used of the speaker himself; sometimes for “the latter” of two persons or things mentioned in speech or writing; more rarely for “the former,” when that, though more remote on the written page, is nearer the speaker in time, place, or thought. Often it refers to that which has just been mentioned.

b. Ille is used of what is remote (in time, etc.); and is hence called the demonstrative of the third person.

It is sometimes used to mean “the former”; also (usually following its noun) of what is famous or well-known; often (especially the neuter illud ) to mean “the following.”

c. Iste is used of what is between the two others in remoteness: often in allusion to the person addressed,—hence called the demonstrative of the second person.

It especially refers to one's opponent (in court, etc.), and frequently implies antagonism or contempt.

d. Is is a weaker demonstrative than the others and is especially common as a personal pronoun. It does not denote any special object, but refers to one just mentioned, or to be afterwards explained by a relative. Often it is merely a correlative to the relative quī :—

  1. vēnit mihi obviam tuus puer, is mihi litterās abs reddidit (Att. 2.1.1) , your boy met me, he delivered to me a letter from you.
  2. eum quem, one whom.
  3. eum cōnsulem quī nōn dubitet (Cat. 4.24) , a consul who will not hesitate.

e. The pronouns hīc , ille , and is are used to point in either direction, back to something just mentioned or forward to something about to be mentioned.

The neuter forms often refer to a clause, phrase, or idea:—

  1. est illud quidem vel maximum, animum vidēre (Tusc. 1.52) , that is in truth a very great thing,—to see the soul.

f. The demonstratives are sometimes used as pronouns of reference, to indicate with emphasis a noun or phrase just mentioned:—

  1. nūllam virtūs aliam mercēdem dēsīderat praeter hanc laudis (Arch. 28) , virtue wants no other reward except that [just mentioned] of praise.

Note.--But the ordinary English use of that of is hardly known in Latin. Commonly the genitive construction is continued without a pronoun, or some other construction is preferred:—

  1. cum Simōnidēs artem memoriae pollicērētur: oblīviōnis, inquit, māllem (Fin. 2.104) , when Simonides promised him the art of memory, “I should prefer,” said he, “[that] of forgetfulness.”
  2. Caesaris exercitus Pompêiānōs ad Pharsālum vīcit, the army of Cæsar defeated that of Pompey (the Pompeians) at Pharsalus.

298. The main uses of īdem and ipse are as follows:—

a. When a quality or act is ascribed with emphasis to a person or thing already named, is or īdem (often with the concessive quidem ) is used to indicate that person or thing:—

    per ūnum servum et eum ex gladiātōriō lūdō; (Att. 1.16.5), by means of a single slave, and that too one from the gladiatorial school.
  1. vincula, et ea sempiterna (Cat. 4.7) , imprisonment, and that perpetual.
  2. Ti. Gracchus rēgnum occupāre cōnātus est, vel rēgnāvit is quidem paucōs mēnsīs (Lael. 41) , Tiberius Gracchus tried to usurp royal power, or rather he actually reigned a few months.

Note.--So rarely with ille: as,nunc dextrā ingemināns ictūs, “nunc ille sinistrā(Aen. 5.457) , now dealing redoubled blows with his right hand, now (he) with his left. [In imitation of the Homeric γε: cf. Aen. 5.334; 9.796.]

b. Idem, the same, is often used where the English requires an adverb or adverbial phrase (also, too, yet, at the same time):—

  1. ōrātiō splendida et grandis et eadem in prīmīs facēta (Brut. 273) , an oration, brilliant, able, and very witty too.
  2. cum [haec] dīcat, negat īdem esse in Deō grātiam (N. D. 1.121) , when he says this, he denies also that there is mercy with God (he, the same man).

Note.--This is really the same use as in a above, but in this case the pronoun cannot be represented by a pronoun in English.

c. The intensive ipse, self, is used with any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis:—

  1. turpe mihi ipsī vidēbātur (Phil. 1.9) , even to me (to me myself) it seemed disgraceful.
  2. id ipsum, that very thing; quod ipsum, which of itself alone.
  3. in eum ipsum locum, to that very place.
  4. tum ipsum (Off. 2.60) , at that very time.

Note 1.--The emphasis of ipse is often expressed in English by just, very, mere, etc.

Note 2.--In English, the pronouns himself etc. are used both intensively (as, he will come himself) and reflexively (as, he will kill himself): in Latin the former would be translated by ipse , the latter by or sēsē .

d. Ipse is often used alone, substantively, as follows:—

    As an emphatic pronoun of the third person:—
    1. idque reī pūblicae praeclārum, ipsīsglōriōsum (Phil. 2.27) , and this was splendid for the state, glorious for themselves.
    2. omnēs bonī quantum inipsīs fuit (id. 2.29), all good men so far as was in their power (in themselves).
    3. capitīipsīus generīque reservent (Aen. 8.484) , may the gods hold in reserve [such a fate] to fall on his own and his son-in-law's head.
    To emphasize an omitted subject of the first or second person:—
      vōbīscumipsīrecordāminī; (Phil. 2.1), remember in your own minds (yourselves with yourselves).
    To distinguish the principal personage from subordinate persons:—
    1. ipse dīxit (cf. αὐτὸς ἔφα), he (the Master) said it.
    2. Nōmentānus erat super ipsum(Hor. S. 2.8.23) , Nomentanus was above [the host] himself [at table].
e. Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of a reflexive (see § 300. b).

f. Ipse usually agrees with the subject, even when the real emphasis in English is on a reflexive in the predicate:—

  1. ipse cōnsōlor (Lael. 10) , I console myself. [Not ipsum , as the English would lead us to expect.]

Reflexive Pronouns

299. The Reflexive Pronoun ( ), and usually its corresponding possessive ( suus ), are used in the predicate to refer to the subject of the sentence or clause:—
  1. ex nāvī prōiēcit (B. G. 4.25) , he threw himself from the ship.
  2. Dumnorīgem ad vocat (id. 1.20), he calls Dumnorix to him.
  3. sēsē castrīs tenēbant (id. 3.24), they kept themselves in camp.
  4. contemnī putant (Cat. M. 65) , they think they are despised.
  5. Caesar suās cōpiās subdūcit (B. G. 1.22) , Cæsar leads up his troops.
  6. Caesar statuit sibi Rhēnum esse trānseundum (id. 4.16), Cæsar decided that he must cross the Rhine (the Rhine must be crossed by himself).

a. For reflexives of the first and second persons the oblique cases of the personal pronouns ( meī , tuī , etc.) and the corresponding possessives ( meus , tuus , etc.) are used:—

    mortī obtulī; (Mil. 94), I have exposed myself to death.
  1. hinc rēgīnae ad līmina perfer (Aen. 1.389) , do you go (bear yourself) hence to the queen's threshold.
  2. quid est quod tantīs nōs in labōribus exerceāmus (Arch. 28) , what reason is there why we should exert ourselves in so great toils?
  3. singulīs vōbīs novēnōs ex turmīs manipulīsque vestrī similēs ēligite (Liv. 21.54) , for each of you pick out from the squadrons and maniples nine like yourselves.

300. In a subordinate clause of a complex sentence there is a double use of Reflexives.

    The reflexive may always be used to refer to the subject of its own clause (Direct Reflexive):—
    1. iūdicārī potest quantum habeat in bonī cōnstantia (B. G. 1.40) , it can be determined how much good firmness possesses (has in itself).
    2. [Caesar] nōluit eum locum vacāre, Germānī ēsuīs fīnibus trānsīrent (id. 1.28), Cæsar did not wish this place to lie vacant, for fear the Germans would cross over from their territories.
    3. qua sīgnificātiō virtūtis ēlūceat ad quam similis animus adplicet et adiungat (Lael. 48) , if any sign of virtue shine forth to which a similar disposition may attach itself.
    If the subordinate clause expresses the words or thought of the subject of the main clause, the reflexive is regularly used to refer to that subject (Indirect Reflexive):—
    1. petiērunt utsibi licēret (B. G. 1.30) , they begged that it might be allowed them (the petitioners).
    2. Iccius nūntium mittit, nisi subsidium sibi submittātur (id. 2.6), Iccius sends a message that unless relief be furnished him, etc.
    3. decima legiō grātiās ēgit, quod optimum iūdicium fēcisset (id. 1.41), the tenth legion thanked him because [they said] he had expressed a high opinion of them.
    4. obsidēs ab eīs (the Helvetians) sibi (Cæsar, who is the speaker) dentur, (Cæsar) cum eīs pācem esse factūrum (id. 1.14), [Cæsar said that] if hostages were given him by them he would make peace with them.

    Note.--Sometimes the person or thing to which the reflexive refers is not the grammatical subject of the main clause, though it is in effect the subject of discourse: Thus, “cum ipsī deō nihil minus grātum futūrum sit quam nōn omnibus patēre ad plācandum viam(Legg. 2.25) , since to God himself nothing will be less pleasing than that the way to appease him should not be open to all men.

a. If the subordinate clause does not express the words or thought of the main subject, the reflexive is not regularly used, though it is occasionally found:—
  1. sunt ita multī ut eōs carcer capere nōn possit (Cat. 2.22) , they are so many that the prison cannot hold them. [Here could not be used; so also in the example following.]
  2. ibi in proximīs vīllīs ita bipartītō fuērunt, ut Tiberis inter eōs et pōns interesset (id. 3.5), there they stationed themselves in the nearest farmhouses, in two divisions, in such a manner that the Tiber and the bridge were between them (the divisions).
  3. nōn fuit contentus quod praeter spem acciderat (Manil. 25) , he was not content with that which had happened to him beyond his hope.
  4. Compare: quī fit, Maecēnās, ut nēmō, quam sibi sortem seu ratiō dederit seu fors obiēcerit, illā contentus vīvat (Hor. S. 1.1.1) , how comes it, Mœcenas, that nobody lives contented with that lot which choice has assigned him or chance has thrown in his way? [Here sibi is used to put the thought into the mind of the discontented man.]

b. Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of an indirect reflexive, either to avoid ambiguity or from carelessness; and in later writers is sometimes found instead of the direct reflexive:

  1. cūr suā virtūte aut ipsīus dīligentiā dēspērārent (B. G. 1.40) , why (he asked) should they despair of their own courage or his diligence?
  2. omnia aut ipsōs aut hostēs populātōs(Q. C. 3.5.6) , [they said that] either they themselves or the enemy had laid all waste. [Direct reflexive.]
  3. quī ex hīs minus timidōs exīstimārī volēbant, nōn hostem verērī, sed angustiās itineris et māgnitūdinem silvārum quae intercēderent inter ipsōs (the persons referred to by above) atque Ariovistum ... “timēre dīcēbant(B. G. 1.39) , those of them who wished to be thought less timid said they did not fear the enemy, but were afraid of the narrows and the vast extent of the forests which were between themselves and Ariovistus.
  4. audīstis nūper dīcere lēgātōs Tyndaritānōs Mercurium quī sacrīs anniversāriīs apud eōs colerētur esse sublātum (Verr. 4.84) , you have just heard the ambassadors from Tyndaris say that the statue of Mercury which was worshipped with annual rites among them was taken away. [Here Cicero wavers between apud eōs colēbātur , a remark of his own, and apud colerētur , the words of the ambassadors. eōs does not strictly refer to the ambassadors, but to the people—the Tyndaritani.]

301. Special uses of the Reflexive are the following:—

a. The reflexive in a subordinate clause sometimes refers to the subject of a suppressed main clause:—

  1. Paetus omnīs librōs quōs frāter suus relīquisset mihi dōnāvit (Att. 2.1) , Pœtus gave me all the books which (as he said in the act of donation) his brother had left him.

b. The reflexive may refer to any noun or pronoun in its own clause which is so emphasized as to become the subject of discourse:

  1. Sōcratem cīvēs suī interfēcērunt, Socrates was put to death by his own fellowcitizens.
  2. quī poterat salūs sua cuiquam nōn probārī; (Mil. 81), how can any one fail to approve his own safety? [In this and the preceding example the emphasis is preserved in English by the change of voice.]
  3. hunc secūtī erunt suī comitēs (Cat. 2.10) , this man, if his companions follow him.

Note.--Occasionally the clause to which the reflexive really belongs is absorbed: as, “studeō sānāre sibi ipsōs(Cat. 2.17) , I am anxious to cure these men for their own benefit (i.e. ut sānī sibi sint ).

c. Suus is used for one's own as emphatically opposed to that of others, in any part of the sentence and with reference to any word in it:—

    suīs flammīs dēlēte Fīdēnās (Liv. 4.33) , destroy Fidenœ with its own fires (the fires kindled by that city, figuratively). [Cf. Cat. 1.32.]

d. The reflexive may depend upon a verbal noun or adjective:—

  1. suī laus, self-praise.
  2. habētis ducem memorem vestrī, oblītum suī (Cat. 4.19) , you have a leader mindful of you, forgetful of himself.
  3. perditī hominēs cum suī similibus servīs (Phil. 1.5) , abandoned men with slaves like themselves.

e. The reflexive may refer to the subject implied in an infinitive or verbal abstract used indefinitely:—

  1. contentum suīs rēbus esse maximae sunt dīvitiae (Par. 51) , the greatest wealth is to be content with one's own.
  2. cui prōposita sit cōnservātiō suī (Fin. 5.37) , one whose aim is self-preservation.

f. Inter (nōs, vōs), among themselves (ourselves, yourselves), is egularly used to express reciprocal action or relation:—

  1. inter cōnflīgunt (Cat. 1.25) , contend with each other.
  2. inter continentur (Arch. 2) , are joined to each other.

Possessive Pronouns

302. The Possessive Pronouns are derivative adjectives, which take the gender, number, and case of the noun to which they belong, not those of the possessor:
  1. haec ōrnāmenta sunt mea (Val. 4.4) , these are my jewels. [ mea is neuter plural, though the speaker is a woman.]
  2. meī sunt ōrdinēs, mea dīscrīptiō; (Cat. M. 59), mine are the rows, mine the arrangement. [ mea is feminine, though the speaker is Cyrus.]
  3. multa in nostrō collēgiō praeclāra (id. 64), [there are] many fine things in our college. [ nostrō is neuter singular, though men are referred to.]
  4. Germānī suās cōpiās castrīs ēdūxērunt (B. G. 1.51) , the Germans led their troops out of the camp.

a. To express possession and similar ideas the possessive pronouns are regularly used, not the genitive of the personal or reflexive pronouns (§ 343. a):—

  1. domus mea, my house. [Not domus meī .]
  2. pater noster, our father. [Not pater nostrī .]
  3. patrimōnium tuum, your inheritance. [Not tuī .]

Note 1.--Exceptions are rare in classic Latin, common in later writers. For the use of a possessive pronoun instead of an Objective Genitive, see § 348. a.

Note 2.--The Interrogative Possessive cûius , -a, -um, occurs in poetry and early Latin: as,— “cûium pecus(Ecl. 3.1) , whose flock? The genitive cûius is generally used instead.

b. The possessives have often the acquired meaning of peculiar to, favorable or propitious towards, the person or thing spoken of:—

  1. [petere] ut suā clēmentiā ac mānsuētūdine ūtātur (B. G. 2.14) , they asked (they said) that he would show his [wonted] clemency and humanity.
  2. īgnōrantī quem portum petat nūllus suus ventus est (Sen. Ep. 71.3) , to him who knows not what port he is bound to, no wind is fair (his own).
  3. tempore tuō pūgnāstī; (Liv. 38.45.10), did you fight at a fit time?

Note.--This use is merely a natural development of the meaning of the possessive, and the pronoun may often be rendered literally.

c. The possessives are regularly omitted (like other pronouns) when they are plainly implied in the context:—

  1. socium fraudāvit, he cheated his partner. [ socium suum would be distinctive, his partner (and not another's); suum socium , emphatic, his own partner.]

d. Possessive pronouns and adjectives implying possession are often used substantively to denote some special class or relation:—

  1. nostrī, our countrymen, or men of our party.
  2. suōs continēbat (B. G. 1.15) , he held his men in check.
  3. flamma extrēma meōrum (Aen. 2.431) , last flames of my countrymen.
  4. Sullānī, the veterans of Sulla's army; Pompêiānī, the partisans of Pompey.

Note.--There is no reason to suppose an ellipsis here. The adjective becomes a noun like other adjectives (see § 288).

e. A possessive pronoun or an adjective implying possession may take an appositive in the genitive case agreeing in gender, number, and case with an implied noun or pronoun:—

  1. meā sōlīus causā; (Ter. Heaut. 129), for my sake only.
  2. in nostrō omnium flētū; (Mil. 92), amid the tears of us all.
    ex Anniānā Milōnis domō; (Att. 4.3.3), out of Annius Milo's house. [Equivalent to ex Annī Milōnis domō .]
  3. nostra omnium patria, the country of us all.
  4. suum ipsīus rēgnum, his own kingdom.

For the special reflexive use of the possessive suus , see §§ 299, 300.

Relative Pronouns

303. A Relative Pronoun agrees with some word expressed or implied either in its own clause, or (often) in the antecedent (demonstrative) clause. In the fullest construction the antecedent is expressed in both clauses, with more commonly a corresponding demonstrative to which the relative refers: as,iter in ea loca facere coepit, “ quibus in locīs esse Germānōs audiēbat(B. G. 4.7) , he began to march into those PLACES in which PLACES he heard the Germans were. But one of these nouns is commonly omitted.

The antecedent is in Latin very frequently (rarely in English) found in the relative clause, but more commonly in the antecedent clause.

Thus relatives serve two uses at the same time:—

  1. As Nouns (or Adjectives) in their own clause: as, “quī Alesiae obsīdēbantur(B. G. 7.77) , those who were besieged at Alesia.
  2. As Connectives: as,—T. Balventius, quī superiōre annō prīmum pīlum dūxerat (id. 5.35), Titus Balventius, who the year before had been a centurion of the first rank.
When the antecedent is in a different sentence, the relative is often equivalent to a demonstrative with a conjunction: as,quae cum ita sint (=et cum ea ita sint), [and] since this is so.

The subordinating force did not belong to the relative originally, but was developed from an interrogative or indefinite meaning specialized by use. But the subordinating and the later connective force were acquired by quī at such an early period that the steps of the process cannot now be traced.

304. A Relative Pronoun indicates a relation between its own clause and some substantive. This substantive is called the Antecedent of the relative.

Thus, in the sentence—

  1. eum nihil dēlectābat quod fās esset (Mil. 43) , nothing pleased him which was right,

the relative quod connects its antecedent nihil with the predicate fās esset , indicating a relation between the two.

305. A Relative agrees with its Antecedent in Gender and Number; but its Case depends on its construction in the clause in which it stands:—

  1. ea diēs quam cōnstituerat vēnit (B. G. 1.8) , that day which he had appointed came.
  2. pontem quī erat ad Genāvam iubet rescindī; (id. 1.7), he orders the bridge which was near Geneva to be cut down.
  3. Aduatucī, quibus suprā dīximus, domum revertērunt (id. 2.29), the Aduatuci, of whom we have spoken above, returned home.

Note.--This rule applies to all relative words so far as they are variable in form: as, quālis , quantus , quīcumque , etc.

a. If a relative has two or more antecedents, it follows the rules for the agreement of predicate adjectives (§§ 286, 287):—

  1. fīlium et fīliam, quōs valdē dīlēxit, unō tempore āmīsit, he lost at the same time a son and a daughter whom he dearly loved.
  2. grandēs nātū mātrēs et parvulī līberī, quōrum utrōrumque aetās misericor, diam nostram requīrit (Verr. 5.129) , aged matrons and little children, whose time of life in each case demands our compassion.
  3. ōtium atque dīvitiae, quae prīma mortālēs putant (Sall. Cat. 36), idleness and wealth, which men count the first (objects of desire).
  4. eae frūgēs et frūctūs quōs terra gignit (N. D. 2.37) , those fruits and crops which the earth produces.

For the Person of the verb agreeing with the Relative, see § 316. a.

306. A Relative generally agrees in gender and number with an appositive or predicate noun in its own clause, rather than with an antecedent of different gender or number (cf. § 296. a):—

  1. mare etiam quem Neptūnum esse dīcēbās (N. D. 3.52) , the sea, too, which you said was Neptune. [Not quod .]
  2. Thēbae ipsae, quod Boeōtiae caput est (Liv. 42.44) , even Thebes, which is the chief city of Bœotia. [Not quae .]

Note.--This rule is occasionally violated: as, “flūmen quod appellātur Tamesis(B. G. 5.11) , a river which is called the Thames.

a. A relative occasionally agrees with its antecedent in case (by attraction):—

    aliquid agā eōrum quōrum cōnsuēstī; (Fam. 5.14), if you should do something of what you are used to do. [For eōrum quae .]

Note.--Occasionally the antecedent is attracted into the case of the relative:— “ urbem quam statuō vestra est(Aen. 1.573) , the city which I am founding is yours. Naucratem , “quem convenīre voluī, in nāvī nōn erat(Pl. Am. 1009) , Naucrates, whom I wished to meet, was not on board the ship.

b. A relative may agree in gender and number with an implied antecedent:—

  1. quārtum genus ... quī in vetere aere aliēnō vacillant (Cat. 2.21) , a fourth class, who are staggering under old debts.
  2. ūnus ex numerō quī parātī erant (Iug. 35) , one of the number [of those] who were ready.
  3. coniūrāvēre paucī, quā [i.e. coniūrātiōne] dīcam (Sall. Cat. 18), a few have conspired, of which [conspiracy] I will speak.

Note.--So regularly when the antecedent is implied in a possessive pronoun: as, nostra ācta, quōstyrannōs vocās(Vat. 29) , the deeds of us, whom you call tyrants. [Here quōs agrees with the nostrum (genitive plural) implied in nostra .]

Antecedent of the Relative

307. The Antecedent Noun sometimes appears in both clauses, but usually only in the one that precedes. Sometimes it is wholly omitted.

a. The antecedent noun may be repeated in the relative clause:—

  1. locī nātūra erat haec quem locum nostrī dēlēgerant (B. G. 2.18) , the nature of the ground which our men had chosen was this.

b. The antecedent noun may appear only in the relative clause, agreeing with the relative in case:—

  1. quās rēs in cōnsulātū nostrō gessimus attigit hīc versibus (Arch. 28) , he has touched in verse the things which I did in my consulship.
  2. quae prīma innocentis mihi dēfēnsiō est oblāta suscēpī; (Sull. 92), I undertook the first defence of an innocent man that was offered me.

Note.--In this case the relative clause usually comes first (cf. § 308. d) and a lemonstrative usually stands in the antecedent clause:—

  1. quae pars cīvitātis calamitātem populō Rōmānō intulerat, ea prīnceps poenās persolvit (B. G. 1.12) , that part of the state which had brought disaster on the Roman people was the first to pay the penalty.
  2. quae grātia currum fuit vīvīs, eadem sequitur (Aen. 6.653) , the same pleasure that they took in chariots in their lifetime follows them (after death).
  3. quī fit ut nēmō, quam sibi sortem ratiō dederit, illā contentus vīvat (cf. Hor. S. 1.1.1), how does it happen that no one lives contented with the lot which choice has assigned him?

c. The antecedent may be omitted, especially if it is indefinite:—

  1. quī decimae legiōnis aquilam ferēbat(B. G. 4.25) , [the man] who bore the eagle of the tenth legion.
  2. quī cōgnōscerent mīsit (id. 1.21), he sent [men] to reconnoitre.

d. The phrase id quod or quae rēs may be used (instead of quod alone) to refer to a group of words or an idea:—

    [obtrectātum est] Gabīniō dīcam anne Pompêiō? an utrīqueid quod est vērius? (Manil. 57), an affront has been offered—shall I say to Gabinius or to Pompey? or—which is truer—to both?
  1. multum sunt in vēnātiōnibus, quae rēs vīrēs alit (B. G. 4.1) , they spend much time in hunting, which [practice] increases their strength.

Note.--But quod alone often occurs: as,—Cassius noster, quod mihi māgnae voluptātī fuit, “hostem rêiēcerat(Fam. 2.10) , our friend Cassius—which was a great satisfaction to me—had driven back the enemy.

e. The antecedent noun, when in apposition with the main clause, or with some word of it, is put in the relative clause:—

  1. fīrmī [amīcī], cûius generis est māgna pēnūria (Lael. 62) , steadfast friends, a class of which there is great lack (of which class there is, etc.).

f. A predicate adjective (especially a superlative) belonging to the antecedent may stand in the relative clause:—

  1. vāsa ea quae pulcherrima apud eum vīderat (Verr. 4.63) , those most beautiful vessels which he had seen at his house. [Nearly equivalent to the vessels of which he had seen some very beautiful ones.]

Special Uses of the Relative

308. In the use of Relatives, the following points are to be observed:—

a. The relative is never omitted in Latin, as it often is in English:—

  1. liber quem mihi dedistī, the book you gave me.
  2. is sum quī semper fuī, I am the same man I always was.
  3. in locō est quō tibi locūtus sum, he is in the place I told you of.

b. When two relative clauses are connected by a copulative conjunction, a relative pronoun sometimes stands in the first and a demonstrative in the last:—

  1. erat profectus obviam legiōnibus Macedonicīs quattuor, quās sibi conciliāre pecūniā cōgitābat eāsque ad urbem addūcere (Fam. 12.23.2) , he had set out to meet four legions from Macedonia, which he thought to win over to himself by a gift of money and to lead (them) to the city.

c. A relative clause in Latin often takes the place of some other construction in English,—particularly of a participle, an appositive, or a noun of agency:—

  1. lēgēs quae nunc sunt, the existing laws (the laws which now exist).
  2. Caesar quī Galliam vīcit, Cæsar the conqueror of Gaul.
  3. iūsta glōria quī est frūctus virtūtis (Pison. 57) , true glory [which is] the fruit of virtue.
  4. ille quī petit, the plaintiff (he who sues).
  5. quī legit, a reader (one who reads).

d. In formal or emphatic discourse, the relative clause usually comes first, often containing the antecedent noun (cf. § 307. b):—

  1. quae pars cīvitātis Helvētiae īnsīgnem calamitātem populō Rōmānō intulerat, ea prīnceps poenās persolvit (B. G. 1.12) , the portion of the Helvetian state which had brought a serious disaster on the Roman people was the first to pay the penalty.

Note.--In colloquial language, the relative clause in such cases often contains a redundant demonstrative pronoun which logically belongs in the antecedent clause: as,ille quī cōnsultē cavet, diūtinē ūtī bene licet partum bene (Plaut. Rud. 1240), he who is on his guard, he may long enjoy what he has well obtained.

e. The relative with an abstract noun may be used in a parenthetical clause to characterize a person, like the English such:

  1. quae vestra prūdentia est (Cael. 45) , such is your wisdom. [Equivalent to prō vestrā prūdentiā .]
  2. audīssēs cōmoedōs vel lēctōrem vel lyristēn, vel, quae mea līberālitās, omnēs (Plin. Ep. 1.15) , you would have listened to comedians, or a reader, or a lyre-player, or—such is my liberality—to all of them.

f. A relative pronoun (or adverb) often stands at the beginning of an independent sentence or clause, serving to connect it with the sentence or clause that precedes:—

  1. Caesar statuit exspectandam classem; quae ubi convēnit (B. G. 3.14) , Cæsar decided that he must wait for the fleet; and when this had come together, etc.
  2. quae quī audiēbant, and those who heard this (which things).
  3. quae cum ita sint, and since this is so.
  4. quōrum quod simile factum (Cat. 4.13) , what deed of theirs like this?
  5. quō cum vēnisset, and when he had come there (whither when he had come).

Note.--This arrangement is common even when another relative or an interrogative follows. The relative may usually be translated by an English demonstrative, with or without and.

g. A relative adverb is regularly used in referring to an antecedent in the Locative case; so, often, to express any relation of place instead of the formal relative pronoun:—

  1. mortuus Cūmīs quō contulerat (Liv. 2.21) , having died at Cumœ, whither he had retired. [Here in quam urbem might be used, but not in quās.]
  2. locus quō aditus nōn erat, a place to which (whither) there was no access.
  3. rēgna unde genus dūcis (Aen. 5.801) , the kingdom from which you derive your race.
  4. unde petitur, the defendant (he from whom something is demanded).

h. The relatives quī , quālis , quantus , quot , etc. are often rendered simply by as in English:—

  1. idem quod semper, the same as always.
  2. cum esset tālis quālem esse videō; (Mur. 32), since he was such a man as I see you are.
  3. tanta dīmicātiō quanta numquam fuit (Att. 7.1.2) , such a fight as never was before.
  4. tot mala quot sīdera (Ov. Tr. 1.5.47), as many troubles as stars in the sky.

i. The general construction of relatives is found in clauses introduced by relative adverbs: as, ubi , quō , unde , cum , quārē .

Indefinite Pronouns

309. The Indefinite Pronouns are used to indicate that some person or thing is meant, without designating what one.

310. Quis , quispiam , aliquis , quīdam , are particular indefinites, meaning some, a certain, any. Of these, quis, any one, is least definite, and quīdam, a certain one, most definite; aliquis and quispiam, some one, stand between the two:—

  1. dīxerit quis ( quispiam ), some one may say.
  2. aliquī philosophī ita putant, some philosophers think so. [ quīdam would mean certain persons defined to the speaker's mind, though not named.]
  3. habitant hīc quaedam mulierēs pauperculae (Ter. Ad. 647) , some poor women live here [i.e. some women he knows of; some women or other would be aliquae or nesciō quae ].

a. The indefinite quis is rare except in the combinations quis, if any; nisi quis, if any ... not; quis, lest any, in order that none; num quis ( ecquis ), whether any; and in relative clauses.

b. The compounds quispiam and aliquis are often used instead of quis after , nisi , , and num , and are rather more emphatic:—

  1. quid hōc quispiam voluit deus (Ter. Eun. 875) , what if some god had desired this?
  2. nisi alicui suōrum negōtium daret (Nep. Dion. 8.2), unless he should employ some one of his friends.
  3. cavēbat Pompêius omnia, aliquid vōs timērētis (Mil. 66) , Pompey took every precaution, so that you might have no fear.

311. In a particular negative aliquis ( aliquī ), some one (some), is regularly used, where in a universal negative quisquam, any one, or ūllus, any, would be required:—

  1. iūstitia numquam nocet cuiquam (Fin. 1.50) , justice never does harm to anybody. [ alicui would mean to somebody who possesses it.]
  2. nōn sine aliquō metū, not without some fear. But,sine ūllō metū, without any fear.
  3. cum aliquid nōn habeās (Tusc. 1.88) , when there is something you have not.

Note.--The same distinction holds between quis and aliquis on the one hand, and quisquam ( ūllus ) on the other, in conditional and other sentences when a negative is expressed or suggested:—

  1. quisquam, ille sapiēns fuit (Lael. 9) , if any man was (ever) a sage, he was.
  2. dum praesidia ūlla fuērunt (Rosc. Am. 126) , while there were any armed forces.
  3. quid in peccāvī; (Att. 3.15.4), if I have done wrong towards you [in any particular case (see § 310)].

312. Quīvīs or quīlibet (any one you will), quisquam , and the corresponding adjective ūllus, any at all, are general indefinites.

Quīvīs and quīlibet are used chiefly in affirmative clauses, quisquam and ūllus in clauses where a universal negative is expressed or suggested:—

  1. nōn cuivīs hominī contingit adīre Corinthum (Hor. Ep. 1.17.36) , it is not every man's luck to go to Corinth. [ nōn cuiquam would mean not any man's.]
  2. quemlibet modo aliquem (Acad. 2.132) , anybody you will, provided it be somebody.
  3. quisquam est timidus, is ego sum (Fam. 6.14.1) , if any man is timorous, I am he.
  4. tempus est ūllum iūre hominis necandī; (Mil. 9), if there is any occasion whatever when homicide is justifiable.

Note.--The use of the indefinites is very various, and must be learned from the Lexicon and from practice. The choice among them may depend merely on the point of view of the speaker, so that they are often practically interchangeable. The differences are (with few exceptions) those of logic, not of syntax.

313. The distributives quisque (every), uterque (each of two), and ūnus quisque (every single one) are used in general assertions:—

  1. bonus liber melior est quisque quō mâior (Plin. Ep. 1.20.4) , the larger a good book is, the better (each good book is better in proportion, etc.).
  2. ambō exercitūs suās quisque abeunt domōs (Liv. 2.7.1) , both armies go away, every man to his home.
  3. uterque utrīque erat exercitus in cōnspectū; (B. G. 7.35), each army was in sight of the other (each to each).
  4. pōnite ante oculōs ūnum quemque rēgum (Par. 1.11) , set before your eyes each of the kings.

a. Quisque regularly stands in a dependent clause, if there is one:—

  1. quō quisque est sollertior, hōc docet īrācundius (Rosc. Com. 31) , the keenerwitted a man is, the more impatiently he teaches.

Note.-- Quisque is generally postpositive

1: as, suum cuique, to every man his own.

b. Quisque is idiomatically used with superlatives and with ordinal numerals:—

  1. nōbilissimus quisque, all the noblest (one after the other in the order of their nobility).2
  2. prīmō quōque tempore (Rosc. Am. 36) , at the very first opportunity.
  3. antīquissimum quodque tempus (B. G. 1.45) , the most ancient times.
  4. decimus quisque (id. 5.52), one in ten.

Note 1.--Two superlatives with quisque imply a proportion: as, “sapientissimus quisque aequissimō animō moritur(Cat. M. 83) , the wisest men die with the greatest equanimity.

Note 2.-- Quotus quisque has the signification of how many, pray? often in a disparaging sense (how few):—

  1. quotus enim quisque disertus? quotus quisque iūris perītus est (Planc. 62) , for how few are eloquent! how few are learned in the law!
  2. quotus enim istud quisque fēcisset (Lig. 26) , for how many would have done this? [i.e. scarcely anybody would have done it].

314. Nēmō, no one, is used of persons only—

    As a substantive:—
    1. nēminemaccūsat, he accuses no one.
    As an adjective pronoun instead of nūllus :—
    1. virnēmō bonus (Legg. 2.41) , no good man.

    Note.--Even when used as a substantive, nēmō may take a noun in apposition: as,—nēmō scrīptor, nobody [who is] a writer.

a. Nūllus, no, is commonly an adjective; but in the genitive and ablative singular it is regularly used instead of the corresponding cases of nēmō , and in the plural it may be either an adjective or a substantive:—
  1. nūllum mittitur tēlum (B. C. 2.13) , not a missile is thrown.
  2. nūllō hoste prohibente (B. G. 3.6) , without opposition from the enemy.
  3. nūllīus īnsector calamitātem (Phil. 2.98) , I persecute the misfortune of no one.
  4. nūllō adiuvante (id. 10.4), with the help of no one (no one helping).
  5. nūllī erant praedōnēs (Flacc. 28) , there were no pirates.
  6. nūllī eximentur (Pison. 94) , none shall be taken away.

For nōn nēmō , nōn nūllus ( nōn nūllī ), see § 326. a.

Alius and Alter

315. Alius means simply other, another (of an indefinite number); alter, the other (of two), often the second in a series; cēterī and reliquī, all the rest, the others; alteruter, one of the two:
  1. proptereā quod aliud iter habērent nūllum (B. G. 1.7) , because (as they said) they had no other way.
  2. ūnī epistulae respondī, veniō ad alteram (Fam. 2.17.6) , one letter I have answered, I come to the other.
  3. alterum genus (Cat. 2.19) , the second class.
  4. iēcissem ipse potius in profundum ut cēterōs cōnservārem (Sest. 45) , I should have rather thrown myself into the deep to save the rest.
  5. Servīlius cōnsul, reliquīque magistrātūs (B. C. 3.21) , Servilius the consul and the rest of the magistrates.
  6. cum sit necesse alterum utrum vincere (Fam. 6.3) , since it must be that one of the two should prevail.

Note.-- Alter is often used, especially with negatives, in reference to an indefinite number where one is opposed to all the rest taken singly:—

  1. dum sit dītior alter (Hor. S. 1.1.40) , so long as another is not richer than you (lit. the other, there being at the moment only two persons considered).
  2. nōn ut magis alter, amīcus (id. 1.5.33), a friend such that no other is more so.

a. The expressions alter ... alter, the one ... the other, alius ... alius, one ... another, may be used in pairs to denote either division of a group or reciprocity of action:—

  1. alterī dīmicant, alterī victōrem timent (Fam. 6.3) , one party fights, the other fears the victor.
  2. alteram alterī praesidiō esse iusserat (B. C. 3.89) , he had ordered each (of the two legions) to support the other.
  3. aliī gladiīs adoriuntur, aliī fragmentīs saeptōrum (Sest. 79) , some make an attack with swords, others with fragments of the railings.
  4. alius ex aliō causam quaerit (B. G. 6.37) , they ask each other the reason.
  5. alius alium percontāmur (Pl. Stich. 370) , we keep asking each other.

b. Alius and alter are often used to express one as well as another (the other) of the objects referred to:—

  1. alter cōnsulum, one of the [two] consuls.
  2. aliud est maledīcere, aliud accūsāre (Cael. 6) , it is one thing to slander, another to accuse.

c. Alius repeated in another case, or with an adverb from the same stem, expresses briefly a double statement:—

  1. alius aliud petit, one man seeks one thing, another another (another seeks another thing).
  2. iussit aliōs alibī fodere (Liv. 44.33) , he ordered different persons to dig in different places.
  3. aliī aliō locō resistēbant (B. C. 2.39) , some halted in one place, some in another.

1 That is, it does not stand first in its clause.

2 As, in taking things one by one off a pile, each thing is uppermost when you take it.

hide References (139 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (126):
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 12.23.2
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 2.17.6
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 5.14
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 6.14.1
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 6.3
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 1.16.5
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 2.1
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 2.1.1
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 3.15.4
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 4.3.3
    • Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 7.1.2
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.12
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.14
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.15
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.22
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.30
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.39
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.40
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.45
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.51
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.7
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 1.8
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 2.14
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 2.18
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 3.14
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 3.6
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 4.1
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 4.25
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 4.7
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 6.37
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 7.35
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 7.77
    • Cicero, For Marcus Caelius, 45
    • Cicero, For Marcus Caelius, 6
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 1.25
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 1.32
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 2.10
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 2.19
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 2.21
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 2.22
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 4.13
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 4.19
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 4.24
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 4.7
    • Cicero, On Pompey's Command, 25
    • Cicero, On Pompey's Command, 57
    • Cicero, For Ligarius, 26
    • Cicero, Philippics, 1.5
    • Cicero, Philippics, 1.9
    • Cicero, Philippics, 2.1
    • Cicero, Philippics, 2.27
    • Cicero, Philippics, 2.98
    • Cicero, For Quintus Roscius the Actor, 31
    • Cicero, For Archias, 2
    • Cicero, For Archias, 28
    • Cicero, For Plancius, 62
    • Cicero, For Sextus Roscius of Ameria, 126
    • Cicero, For Sextus Roscius of Ameria, 36
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.4.63
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.4.84
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.5.126
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.5.129
    • Cicero, For Flaccus, 28
    • Cicero, For Lucius Murena, 32
    • Cicero, For Sulla, 92
    • Cicero, For Milo, 43
    • Cicero, For Milo, 66
    • Cicero, For Milo, 81
    • Cicero, For Milo, 9
    • Cicero, For Milo, 92
    • Cicero, For Milo, 94
    • Cicero, Against Piso, 57
    • Cicero, Against Piso, 94
    • Cicero, For Sestius, 45
    • Cicero, For Sestius, 79
    • Plautus, Stichus, 2.2
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 1.389
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 2.431
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 5.801
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 6.653
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 8.484
    • Horace, Satires, 1.1.1
    • Horace, Satires, 1.1.40
    • Horace, Satires, 2.8.23
    • Caesar, Civil War, 2.13
    • Caesar, Civil War, 2.39
    • Caesar, Civil War, 3.21
    • Caesar, Civil War, 3.89
    • Terence, The Brothers, 4.5
    • Terence, The Eunuch, 5.2
    • Pliny the Younger, Epistulae, 1.15
    • Pliny the Younger, Epistulae, 1.20.4
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 42, 44
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 44, 33
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 2, 21
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 2, 7.1
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 4, 33
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 21, 54
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 38, 45
    • Cicero, De Legibus, 2.41
    • Cicero, Lucullus, 132
    • Cicero, de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, 1.50
    • Cicero, de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, 2.104
    • Cicero, de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, 5.37
    • Cicero, de Natura Deorum, 1.121
    • Cicero, de Natura Deorum, 2.37
    • Cicero, de Natura Deorum, 3.52
    • Cicero, De Senectute, 59
    • Cicero, De Senectute, 65
    • Cicero, De Amicitia, 10
    • Cicero, De Amicitia, 18
    • Cicero, De Amicitia, 41
    • Cicero, De Amicitia, 48
    • Cicero, De Amicitia, 62
    • Cicero, De Amicitia, 9
    • Cicero, Tusculanae Disputationes, 1.52
    • Cicero, Tusculanae Disputationes, 1.88
    • Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum, 1
    • Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum, 51
    • Cicero, De Officiis, 2.60
    • Seneca, Epistulae, 71.3
    • Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio, 18
    • Sallust, Catilinae Coniuratio, 36
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 35
    • Curtius, Historiarum Alexandri Magni, 3.5.6
    • Valerius Maximus, Facta et Dicta Memorabilia, 4.4
  • Cross-references in notes from this page (13):
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 2.10
    • Caesar, Gallic War, 5.11
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 2.17
    • Cicero, Against Catiline, 3.29
    • Cicero, Against Vatinius, 29
    • Cicero, Against Verres, 2.3.224
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 1.573
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 5.334
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 5.457
    • Vergil, Eclogues, 3
    • Plautus, Amphitruo, 4.1
    • Cicero, De Legibus, 2.25
    • Cicero, De Senectute, 83
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