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35. 98.933 KYLIX Interior: Phanas and Empedion PLATE XIV

Diameter, 0.33 m.; height, 0.121 m. A large, well-made kylix, incomplete and badly damaged. The handles missing; the surface mostly eaten away except where protected by the black glaze. The lines of the pictures, including those from which the black has worn off, rise above the adjoining surface. Relief contours throughout, apparently. Red paint used in the interior for the straps of the two petasoi, for the cords of Phanas' gaiters, for his sword-belt; on the exterior for the shoes of the archer at the left, for the dots on his trousers, for the leaves of the tree; also for the inscriptions within and without. The two archers are in the black-figured technique, with details incised. The quiver of the left-hand archer, the strap and cords on the interior of Hector's shield, and a line on his left thigh are in brown.

After having been in the possession of the dealer Depoletti in Rome, the kylix disappeared, and was finally bought in London. Ann. Rep. 1898, p. 68, no. 42. Gerhard, A.V., Pl. 203. Overbeck, Gallerie heroischer Bildwerke, Pl. 19, no. 14, p. 449, no. 100. Kretschmer, Vaseninschriften, pp. 118 and 168, note 2 (reference to a tracing of the inner picture in the Apparat of the Berlin Museum). Pollak, Zwei Vasen aus der Werkstatt Hierons, p. 21, Pl. VIII, fig. on p. 22. Tonks, Brygos, no. 57, pp. 91, 115. Beazley, V.A., p. 91. Hoppin, i, p. 126, no. 30. Bulas, Les illustrations antiques de l'Iliade, fig. 20, p. 38 (reproduces Pollak's drawing).

The fairly accurate drawings reproduced by Pollak have made plain the unreliability of the earlier publication of the exterior by Gerhard. But, in view of the interesting subjects, it has seemed worth while to give on Plate XIV full-size photographs of the kylix in its present state.

Interior: A youth, Phanas, seated on a rock in profile to right, with head bowed, right hand resting on knee, left hand raised and holding two spears. His bearded companion, Empedion, stands looking down at him. He also holds a pair of spears in his right hand; his left hand, covered by his cloak, rests on his hip. His sword hangs at his side, while that of Phanas with a red cross-belt is suspended in the field. Both are garbed in petasos, chlamys, and boots. The hat of Phanas hangs behind his neck, that of Empedion is held in place on the top of his head by a red cord. Empedion's chlamys is fastened in front by a round brooch. The boots of Phanas reach to the calf of his leg, and their upper parts are bound with cords, the ends of which, painted red, project in front of his ankles. Empedion evidently had similar boots, for a bit of cord is visible in front of his leg just above the break.1 The names ΦΑΝΑΣ and ΕΜΠΕΔΙΟΝ are inscribed above the figures.

Both names are known, but not in connexion with any myth.2 The resemblance of the group to that on the interior of the Telephos cup in Boston from the workshop of Hieron representing Telephos as a suppliant before Teuthras has been pointed out by Pollak.3 But he is probably right in interpreting our picture as a genre scene: the two men are resting during a journey; the pose of Phanas expresses fatigue, but not necessarily emotional stress.4

Exterior: The walls of Troy, represented by three gates surmounted by a line of battlements running continuously round the cup just below the rim.

On side A Hector rushes to left, pursued by Achilles. To right and left of this group, an open gate with an archer standing on guard in it. Hector, [ΗΕΚ]ΤΟΡ, is bearded, and wears a short chiton, a bronze cuirass with anatomical markings drawn on it, an Attic crested helmet with cheek-pieces raised, and greaves. He turns his head as he runs, and aims his spear at Achilles, holding out his shield on his left arm. His face is in three-quarter view with the mouth wide open. Achilles, ΑΧΙΛΛΕΥ[Σ], similarly equipped (so far as can be seen), with the addition of a sword hanging at his left side, advances his shield and holds his spear in his right hand. A bit of his profile is preserved, showing that he was bearded. It is noteworthy that his right foot is in perspective with the sole visible. Both shields are drawn in perspective, that of Achilles having a black boar as a device. In the spaces of the battlements above the shields, the inscription [Ι]Λ[Ι]ΟΝ. The gate-posts are reserved. Against their inner faces the ends of the door-valves are shown in black. Each valve has three cross-pieces (the topmost missing) fastened upon it with large nails, two rows of nails for each cross-piece. The cross-pieces are in outline, the nail-heads in black. Against the reserved ground of each gateway, an archer in the black-figured technique. The one guarding the left-hand gate stands in front view, holding his bow in his left hand. He wears a long-sleeved tunic, tight-fitting trousers, and red shoes; his quiver hangs in front of his body. The folds of the chiton, the seam and hem of the sleeve, and a pattern of squares on the trousers are rendered by finely incised lines. Each square on the trousers has a red dot in its centre. The less well preserved figure in the right-hand doorway also holds his bow in his left hand, and is similarly attired, but without red shoes. The incised pattern on his sleeves and trousers is also different: circles to left of the seam, rows of wavy lines to right.

The centre of side B is occupied by a gate with a wider opening and background painted black. The details of the door-valves are like those on A, but with the colours reversed. On the ground in the centre of the opening, an object shaped like the echinus of a Doric capital upside down. This, as Pollak suggests, is a stone against which the door valves were set when closed. Similar door-stones, drawn in outline, appear less clearly in the gates on side A. In the opening, Priam, ΠΡΙ[Α]Μ[ΟΣ], in Ionic chiton, himation, and black shoes, moves cautiously to right, holding a sceptre in his extended left hand, and grasping the post behind him with his right. He is evidently conceived as being inside the gate, on the look-out for Hector. Behind him, well within the walls, Hekabe, [ΗΕΚΑ]ΒΕ, in chiton decorated with small circles, and himation, follows him with hands raised in excitement. At the right of the gate, and evidently outside the wall, Athena, [Α]ΘΕΝΑ[ΙΑ], advances to right, with spear in her right hand, shield on her extended left arm. Only her right shoulder, the lower edge of the shield, a bit of drapery below it, her right foot, and the butt of the spear are preserved. Before her, a tree, suggesting that she is waiting in ambush to attack Hector. The scene evidently represents the pursuit of Hector by Achilles as described in the twenty-second book of the Iliad.

About 490-480 B.C. By a follower of the Brygos painter, 'standing in nearly the same relation to the master as the Foundry painter does. The style is akin to that of the Munich Centauromachy cup, F.R., Pl. 86 .' (Beazley.) (Munich 26405

H. Luckenbach, 1880, Das Verhältniss der griechischen Vasenbilder zu den Gedichten des epischen Kyklos, Leipzig, p. 516; K. Friis Johansen, 1934, Iliaden i Tidlig Graesk Kunst, Kopenhagen, P. Branner, pp. 99-100, 114, 158, no. B15; C. Hofkes-Brukker, BABesch 15 (1940), pp. 27-28, fig. 11; ARV, p. 266 (as 98.733) (connected with the Foundry Painter); Roton 1950, p. 237, 2 illus.; Caskey & Beazley, II, p. 101, no. 35; Ghali-Kahil 1955, p. 112, note 8; EAA, III, p. 209 (A. Comotti); Brommer 1960, p. 258, no. B5 (as 98.733); Palmer 1962, pp. 92-93, fig. 81; A. H. Ashmead, AJA 67 (1963), p. 98; ARV2, p. 402, no. 23 (Foundry Painter); C. Clairmont, AntK 6 (1963), p. 23, note 5; Scherer 1963, pp. 81 (pl. 65), 85 (pl. 67); E. Vermeule 1965, fig. 25; Friis-Johansen 1967, pp. 188-191 (fig. 77), 216, 260, no. B 15; Follmann 1968, p. 96, note 260; Para., p. 370, no. 23; K. Schauenburg, RM 79 (1972), p. 6, note 29; E. R. Knauer, 125 BWPr, p. 24, note 51; Brommer 1973, pp. 344 (no. B 6), 468 (no. B 3); L. Haselberger, AA 1978, p. 360, note 46; Childs 1978, pp. 62-63, 68-69, 76, pl. 31, 1-3; Cambitoglou 1979, pp. 35-36 (J. Boardman); Brommer 1979a, pp. 40, 170; J. Neils, AntK 23 (1980), pp. 22-23, pl. 7, 8; LIMC, I, 1, pp. 134 (no. 564), 137, 199, I, 2, pl. 114, illus. (A. Kossatz-Deissmann); Raeck 1981, pp. 305 (note 826) and 321 (as no. S 484); Beazley Addenda 1, p. 114; M. Hengel and R. Peled, Achilleus in Jerusalem (Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil-Hist. Klasse, 1982, Bericht 1), pp. 16, 58 (as 98.993), pl. 11, A. 18a; LIMC, II, 1, p. 1008, no. 558 (P. Demargne); Brijder 1984, p. 157 (T. Seki); LIMC, IV, 1, pp. 476 (no. 20), 480, IV, 2, pl. 281 (A.-F. Laurens); Schefold & Jung 1989, pp. 224-225 (figs. 201-202), 413; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 231; Lissarrague 1990b, p. 281, no. A476; Buitron 1991, p. 62, note 110 (J. M. Hurwit); W. A. P. Childs, Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 5 (1991), pp. 30-31, 35-36, 38.

1 The leg coverings resemble those worn above his sandals by Zeus on side B of the Brygan kantharos, no. 17, Pl. VI (Boston 95.36). But Phanas' right foot is not sandalled; the alternatives are high boots or shoes with gaiters or puttees.

2 A Phanas is mentioned by Pausanias (Paus. 4.17.9). Empedion occurs in two inscriptions cited by Pape, C.I.G., i, nos. 233, 289, and in Diodorus Siculus, 13, 59 (Diod. Sic. 13.59). Cf. Pollak, op. cit., p. 23, note 1.

3 Boston 98.931. Pollak, op. cit., Pls. 1-3. Hoppin, ii, p. 48, no. 7. Beazley, V.A., p. 108, no. 2; Att. V., p. 225, no. 2.

4 Beazley compares the quiet picture inside the Ilioupersis cup by the Brygos painter in the Louvre, Louvre G 152, F.R. i, Pl. 25, and the seated Peirithoos on the interior of the Xenotimos cup in Boston, Boston 99.539, Antike Denkmäler, i, Pl. 59, 1; Hoppin, ii, p. 477.

5 (From Addenda to Part I) No. 35. Said in ARV. p. 266 to be connected with the Foundry Painter. I have no doubt now that it is his work, and should add it to the list of his vases as no. 22 bis. Part of A-B (after Caskey), Bull. van de Vereeniging June 1940 p. 28. Fairbanks and Chase p. 71. See also Johansen Iliaden pp. 99-100 and p. 158 no. 15.

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  • Cross-references in notes from this page (1):
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 4.17.9
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