70. 97.368 CALYX-KRATER from Vulci PLATES XXXV-XXXVI and SUPPL. PLATE 13, 1Found at Canino in 1889; formerly in the collection of Count Michael Tyszkiewicz. Estimated height 0.443 (the greatest height is 0.452: one side droops, which must be why Caskey never drew and analysed the shape). Diameter 0.513. Robert Scenen der Ilias und Aithiopis pll. 1-2 and p. 3; Fröhner La collection Tyszkiewicz pll. 17-18, whence Furtwängler Aigina p. 345 and VA. p. 54, below, (B) Bulas Les illustrations antiques de l'Iliade fig. 18; AJA. 1916 pp. 145-6; A, VA. p. 54, above; B and side-view, Jacobsthal O. pl. 62; A, Fairbanks Philostratus, Imagines p. 29 fig. 3; B, Richter and Milne fig. 56; B, Fairbanks and Chase p. 66 fig. 71. A, Achilles and Memnon. B, Diomed and Aeneas. About 490-480, by the Tyszkiewicz Painter (AJA. 1916 p. 147 no. 1; VA. p. 55; Att. V. p. 113 no. 1; ARV. p. 185 no. 1). Our drawings are by F. Anderson. The story of Achilles and Memnon was told in the Aithiopis attributed to Arktinos of Miletus. After the burial of Hector, two great champions came to help the Trojans. First, Penthesilea the Amazon, daughter of Ares; and after her death at the hands of Achilles, Memnon, fairest of men, son of Tithonos (brother of Priam) and of the goddess Eos. Memnon slew Antilochos, who died to save his father Nestor. Then Achilles slew Memnon. Soon after, Achilles himself was slain by Paris. The two warriors no longer have their spears. Achilles strides forward, sword in hand. Memnon has drawn his sword, but is wounded, and falls. Both warriors are youthful; and a third warrior lies dead at their feet. On the left Athena steps forward to stand by Achilles, her spear in her right hand, her left arm extended in the aegis. On the right, Eos (wingless as often) stretches out her left arm to support her falling son, while her right arm is extended in entreaty. The names are all inscribed: ΑΘΕΝΑΙΑ, ΑΧΙΛΕΥΣ, ΜΕΛΑΝΙΠΠΟΣ, ΜΕΙΜΝΟΝ, ΗΕΙΟΣ. Besides, ΛΑΧΕΑΣ: ΚΑΛΟΣ is written on the rim of the dead youth's shield. Lacheas does not appear elsewhere as a kalos-name in this form; but in the true Attic form Laches it recurs on six cups of the late archaic period, all by the Antiphon Painter or in his manner (ARV. p. 929). Whether this Laches is the same as our Lacheas is uncertain. In most pictures of the subject, the figure of the goddess Eos, mother of Memnon, is answered on the other side by the figure of the goddess Thetis, mother of Achilles. Here Athena takes the place of Thetis; and so, as will be seen, in one or two other pictures. Again, from what is known of the epic story, one would expect the dead youth to be Antilochos; and Antilochos is the name in two earlier pictures of the combat between Achilles and Memnon (ii p. 15): here, however, the name is Melanippos. Three Trojans of this name make a brief appearance in the Iliad, and one Greek. The Trojans are slain almost as soon as mentioned;1 the Greek remains: but the name is given too freely to supers for one to feel confident that this is the same man. A fifth Melanippos is mentioned by Apollodorus in a list of Priam's bastard sons (Apollod. 3.12.5): Robert conjectures that after the death of Antilochos, Memnon encountered this Melanippos, who fled, but was overtaken and slain; and that the combat between Achilles and Memnon took place over the body. He further conjectures that on a red-figured cup by the Brygos Painter in Tarquinia (Mon. 11 pl. 33; WV. D pl. 8, 2 = WV. 1890-1 pl. 8, 2; Corolla Curtius pll. 48-50: ARV. p. 246 no. 4), and on a black-figured cup in Würzburg (Würzburg 419: AZ. 1851 pl. 31; Langlotz pl. 117), the falling warrior is Melanippos not Memnon, who would be the man to right of him. Robert's theory was opposed by Duhn (D.L.Z. 1892 p. 635) and Lung (Memnon pp. 46-8). Robert had assumed the fallen warrior to be a Trojan: Lung pointed out that from the position of the body it was more likely a Greek. True, Lung's rule (ibid. pp. 38-40) that the dead must always lie with his head towards his friends,23 is not without exceptions: one example is on the East-Greek Euphorbos plate, which Lung himself quotes, in the British Museum (Pfuhl fig. 117), another on the black-figured kantharos by 'the metic' in Athens (Athens, Acr. 2134: Graef pl. 94), a third on the black-figured amphora Louvre E 732 (Mon. 6-7 pl. 7-8), a fourth on the black-figured calyx-krater by Exekias in Athens (North Slope: Hesp. 6 pp. 468-86), a fifth on the red-figured cup by Oltos in Berlin (WV. D pl. 2, 1-2, whence Hoppin Rf. ii p. 249: ARV. p. 38 no. 48); in the last two it is Patroklos who lies with his head towards the enemy. If the dead on the Boston vase is a Greek, we may suppose either, with Lung, that the name Melanippos is a slip for Antilochos, or that the artist has selected a more obscure figure from Memnon's aristeia, which must have included several victims besides Antilochos. The second alternative cannot be rejected out of hand. As to the fallen man on the Tarquinia cup, he is certainly an opponent of the warrior who advances from the left; and if this is Achilles, the fallen must be of the Trojan party, whether Memnon or another;4 the same is true of the falling warrior on the Würzburg cup. The combat of Achilles and Memnon was represented on the Chest of Cypselus: Ἀχιλλεῖ δὲ καὶ Μέμνονι μαχομένοις παρεστήκασιν αἱ μητέρες (Paus. 5.19.1); and later on the Throne of Apollo at Amyklai (Paus. 3.18.12), whether in the presence of their mothers is not stated. There are many pictures of the combat on vases, and in some of them the names of the persons are inscribed. We give a list of the inscribed vases first.
- Berlin 1147, column-krater. Mon. 2 pl. 38, b; detail, Rodenwaldt Korkyra p. 118. Achileus and Memnon fighting; on each side of the group, a warrior riding a horse and leading another. The inscriptions are in the Sicyonian alphabet. Middle Corinthian (Payne NC. p. 317 no. 1170).
- Izmir, fragment, from Old Smyrna. I describe it by kind permission of Mr. J. M. Cook and his Turkish colleagues in the excavation. Memnon, spear in hand, attacking to right. Behind him, his chariot, facing to left — outwards: nothing remains of the chariot, but the upper part of the charioteer is preserved, facing to left, holding reins and kentron. On the left, Eos facing to right. Inscriptions ΑΨΟΣ (Avos) and ΑΙΘΙΟΨ (Aithiops, designating the charioteer). Second quarter of the sixth century, contemporary with early Chalcidian, or even with the Attic fragment described on ii p. 16.5
(East Greek (Aeolian) black-figure)
- Florence 4210, fragment of a neck-amphora by the Chalcidian Inscription Painter (Rumpf). Milani Mon. scelti pl. 1, 1; Rumpf Chalk. V. pl. 1 (with p. 7 no. 1, p. 46, and p. 60). M[emn]on and Achilleus fighting over the body of [A]ntilochos; Memnon is on the left. On the left, Eos; on the right, Thetis. On the right, [Au]tomedon riding a horse; there was doubtless a similar figure on the left.
- Once Magnoncourt, neck-amphora. Gerhard AV. pl. 205, whence Rumpf Chalk. V. p. 182 fig. 12 (with p. 156 a, and pp. 157-9). Memnon and Achileu[s] fighting over the body of Antilochos; Memnon is again on the left. On the left, Heos; on the right, Thetis. Rumpf has shown that the inscriptions must have been retouched: they now read Heos, Memnon, Achileu[s], Antilochos, Thetis. Memnon Group (Rumpf).
- Vatican 389, bf. neck-amphora. Mus. Greg. ii pl. 38, 1; Albizzati pl. 55. Achileus and Memnon, alone. Group of Würzburg 189.
- Athens, Acr. 2611, fragment of a bf. onos. Graef pl. 111. The right-hand part of the picture remains. Memnon, Heos. About 480 B.C.
- Limenas, fragment of a rf. calyx-krater by Phintias (ARV. p. 23: Suppl. plate 11, 2). I know this fragment from a photograph kindly given me by Miss Haspels. What remains is part of Memnon's corslet, from not far below the neck to the waist, seen from behind, with a piece of the baldric, and the left hand of Eos; to right of the corslet, ΜΕΜ[ΝΟΝ]. The design, so far as it goes, is just as in the Boston vase.
- New York 06.1021.139; Amsterdam inv. 2782; Cab. Méd. (ex Fröhner: two frr.); and once Naples, Bourguignon (two frr.), fragments of a rf. cup: see ARV. p. 935: late sixth century. I, archer and fallen warrior: Dietrich von Bothmer points out to me that this is probably not an Amazonomachy as I had thought. B, Achilles and Ajax playing (Hartwig p. 277). A, Achilles and Memnon: Achilles strides to right with spear and Boeotian shield; Memnon falls; between them a dead warrior, head towards Achilles; on the left, Athena running forward, her spear in her right hand, her left arm extended in her aegis; on the left, Thetis running forward, her right arm extended. ΚΑΛΟΣΜΕΜΜΝΟΣ. This may refer to the Memnon known as a καλός from many cups by Oltos, but it more probably refers to the hero depicted: compare, for example, ΘΕΣΕΥΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ on the calyx-krater by Phintias in Leningrad (A, FR. iii p. 235: ARV. p. 22 no. 4),6 or ΚΑΛΟΣ ΕΚΤΩΡ on the neck-amphora by the Hector Painter in the Vatican (Mus. Greg. 2 pl. 60, 2; A, phots. Alinari 35722-3: ARV. p. 684 no. 1).
- Palermo, fragment of a rf. cup, early work by Douris (ARV. p. 281 no. 21). ML. 32 pl. 95, 6; AJA. 1935 p. 481. What remains is the upper half of the left-hand figure on one half of the outside, ΘΕΤΙΣ (retr.).
- London E 468, volute-krater by the Berlin Painter (ARV. p. 138 no. 102). Gerhard AV. pl. 204; JHS. 31 pl. 14 and p. 283; Berl. pll. 29-31. Achilleus and Memnon, with Thetis and Heos.
- Louvre G 342, rf. calyx-krater by the Altamura Painter (ARV. p. 412 no. 8). Millingen AUM. pll. 49-50; CV. d pl. 4, 2-3 and pl. 5, 1-2; A, phot. Alinari 23673; A, phot. Giraudon 25513. Achilles, and Memnon, who wears a sleeved and trousered Oriental costume under his chitoniskos and corslet; between them, Athena; behind Achilles, a female holding a fillet (Thetis?); behind Memnon, two warriors, one of whom seems to come to his assistance. The vase is much restored. The inscription ΑΧΙΛΛΕΥΣ remains, and the name of Memnon may have been in the missing part. The treatment is unusual, and Lung denied that the subject could be Achilles and Memnon, but it can hardly be Achilles and an Amazon, as he suggested, because of the warriors on the right. The date is about 465 or 460. This is the earliest representation of Memnon in which he wears Oriental or semi-Oriental costume. It has been conjectured that in the Memnon trilogy of Aeschylus he was so dressed (see Robert Heldensage p. 1183): this is likely enough, although it is nowhere stated: all that is known is that Aeschylus (it is not said where) described the mother of Memnon as a Kissian (Strab. 15.3.2), that is to say, a native of Susa, so a Persian: an odd description, but serving to show that in Aeschylus Memnon was connected with Susa — came from there, we may say. Susa is the city of Memnon to Herodotus, and had doubtless been so to Aeschylus.
- The next vase on which Memnon is given semi-Oriental costume is a column-krater from about the middle of the fifth century in Copenhagen, by the Painter of London E 489 (Copenhagen 147: Millingen AUM. 1 pl. 40, whence Overbeck Gall. her. Bildw. pl. 21, 16, whence Roscher s.v. Memnon p. 2674; CV. pl. 148, 2: ARV. p. 345 no. 17), where the left-hand warrior is inscribed ΜΕΜ[Ν]ΟΝ. The subject is not the combat with Achilles, but Memnon setting out, with two companions, one mounted, one on foot. The picture has now been transformed by cleaning, and I publish it in AJA. 1950 pp. 318-19 with fig. 5.
- A fragment of a black-figured vase in Athens, Athens, Acr. 586 (Hesp. 13 pl. 7, 2), if it represents the battle between Achilles and Memnon, is a very early Attic rendering of the subject, for the style is related to Sophilos (ibid. p. 52, above, no. 1). The right arm of a warrior holding a spear is preserved, and the upper part of a woman behind him with forearms extended. The woman's name begins with Η, which suggests H[eos]; the name of the warrior begins with Μ; the two letters following the Μ are damaged: the first of them might be Ε, but I was not sure that the second, and last preserved, could be Μ, and for this reason I have not placed the fragment at the head of the Attic list.
- Freiburg, Goettingen, and Halle, fragments of a rf. cup, from Orvieto. Briefly described in C.F. p. 33 no. 9 bis. I have no doubt that the subject is the conflict between Achilles and Memnon. One of the two Freiburg fragments gives Memnon, to right, looking round, seen from behind, down on one knee, his right arm raised holding the spear, the shield on the left arm. On the right, the right arm of Eos, extended, and one flying end of her Ionic himation: she was running to right, looking round. All that remains of Achilles is the fingers of his left hand, apparently grasping Memnon's spear, and a piece of his left shin. A small fragment in Goettingen joins the Freiburg fragment one the left, adding the left foot of Achilles, with half the shank and the left foot of Memnon. A second fragment in Freiburg has the upper part of Thetis, running to left, looking round, her right hand raised, her left arm extended. A larger fragment in Halle comes from the other half of the exterior; it shows a young archer running to left, leading a horse, and, on the right, a woman running to right, looking round, her right arm extended: she wears boots, which are perhaps winged: Iris? A third fragment in Goettingen has a large leaf, under one handle. Inscriptions: on A, [Η]ΟΠ[ΑΙΣ], ΚΑΛ[ΟΣ], and on Memnon's shield ΚΑ[ΛΟΣ]; on B, ...ΣΚΑΛΟ[Σ]. Key-pattern round the missing tondo inside; net-pattern below the outside pictures. Same period as the last. The Halle fragment is mentioned by Nachod in P.W. s.v. Skythes p. 695 no. 20.
- Villa Giulia, rf. cup by Epiktetos (ARV. p. 46 no. 21). Arti figurative 2 pll. 3-8. Achilles and Memnon still matched; between them Hermes with the balance (Psychostasia); on the right, the two mothers running to Zeus and Hera. Ciotti notices (loc. cit. p. 15) that the same combination of combat and psychostasia or kērostasia occurs on a small black-figured lekythos in the British Museum (Murray Hist. of Greek Sculpture ii p. 28 fig. 1, whence Roscher s.v. Keren p. 1142 fig. 1 and Jb. 26 p. 132 fig. 54: Haspels ABL. pl. 36, 1): this is by the Sappho Painter (Haspels ibid. p. 227 no. 28) and is later than the Epiktetos cup. A third instance is on a black-figured hydria of Clazomenian fabric in the Villa Giulia (Annuario 24-6 pll. 3-6 and p. 49, Ricci), rightly assigned by Villard (Mon. Piot 43 p. 49) to the same hand as a much-restored dinos in the Louvre (Louvre E 739: BCH. 1893 pl. 18 and p. 428; part, Mon. Piot loc. cit.). It also occurred, later, in the bronze group by Lykios at Delphi (Paus. 5.22.2-3).
- Tarquinia RC 6846, rf. cup by the Brygos Painter (ARV. p. 246 no. 4). Mon. 11 pl. 33; WV. D pl. 8, 2 = WV. 1890-1 pl. 8, 2, whence Robert Sc. der Ilias p. 4; Corolla Curtius pll. 48-50 (Hampe). See ii p. 41.
- London E 67, rf. cup, manner of the Brygos Painter, by the Castelgiorgio Painter (ARV. p. 258 no. 3). Gerhard TG. pl. D (with restorations, now removed). Both mothers are winged.
- London E 77, rf. cup, by the Sabouroff Painter, in his earlier period (ARV. p. 556 no. 2). Memnon falls. The composition is still much as in the volute-krater by the Berlin Painter (above, ii p. 17).
- Louvre G 399, rf. cup. Mon. 6-7 pl. 5; Pottier pl. 140; phots. Giraudon 17908 and another. The two heroes are still matched. Eos is absent. On the other half of the exterior, Psychostasia: Hermes with the balance, and the two mothers running off. Curious, amateurish style: not before 450, but old-fashioned.
- Bologna 285, rf. calyx-krater by the Altamura Painter (ARV. p. 413 no. 9). Zannoni pl. 11, 3-4 and pl. 12, 1, whence (A) Robert Sc. der Ilias p. 9 fig. 14. Memnon falls. The mothers are both winged.
- Bologna 290, rf. calyx-krater. Zannoni pl. 52, 1 and 11-12. Memnon falls. The mothers are both winged. Thetis holds out a fillet in anticipation of victory, as on the Louvre calyx-krater (ii p. 16): this motive occurs already in black-figured pictures of the second quarter of the sixth century, where the females watching the fight hold out wreaths (hydria in Vienna, Oesterreichisches Museum, Vienna 220, Masner, p. 23; ovoid neck-amphora in Boulogne, 104).
- Leyden 26 f 41, Campanian rf. neck-amphora by the Ixion Painter (JHS. 63 p. 95 no. 11). Millin PVA. i pll. 19-22.
- Berlin 764, fragment of a plaque. AD. i pl. 7, 15, whence Johansen Il. fig. 4.
- Athens, Acr. 646, fragment of a bf. column-krater: what remains is part of the picture on the upper surface of the mouth. Graef pl. 42, whence Johansen Il. fig. 34. The interpretation is due to Robert (Hermes 1901 p. 387): see also Bulas pp. 35-6, Johansen pp. 103-4. Johansen's date, about 540, cannot be far out. The woman on the left is no doubt Athena, but the scale-pattern on the peplos is so common that it cannot be meant to suggest the aegis.
- Copenhagen, Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen, Thorvaldsen Museum 100, rf. cup by Oltos (ARV. p. 39 no. 53). Johansen Il. fig. 35; Art. Bull. 19 p. 548 fig. 8; Bruhn Oltos figs. 37 and 42-3. See Johansen Il. pp. 105-6.
- London E 73, rf. cup by the Kleophrades Painter (ARV. p. 128 no. 94). Journ. Phil. 7 pll. A-B, whence (B) Robert Sc. der Ilias p. 10 fig. 15, Bulas fig. 19, and Johansen Il. fig. 36.
- Louvre, fr. of a rf. pot (possibly a stamnos) by the Syleus Painter. What remains is the lower part of a shield, in three-quarter view, and the middle of a female figure to left, holding a dove (in silhouette) in the left hand: this must be Aphrodite (compare the Syleus Painter's stamnos in Berlin, Jb. 31 p. 203), and the shield must belong to Aeneas. I am not certain that another fragment by the Syleus Painter in the Louvre is from the same vase: if it is, it may give part of Diomed, of Aeneas, and of Aphrodite.
- Würzburg 799, bf. amphora. Mon. 3 pl. 50; Gerhard AV. pl. 194; Jh. 13 pll. 5-8; Langlotz pll. 232-4. See Klein in Jh. 13 pp. 154-6; Bulas pp. 34-5; and EVP. pp. 17-18 and 49.
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