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1 The unnecessary desires are the ultimate causes of wars.Phaedo 66 C. The simple life once abandoned, war is inevitable. “My lord,” said St. Francis to the Bishop of Assisi, “if we possessed property we should have need of arms for its defense” (Sabatier, p. 81). Similarly that very dissimilar thinker, Mandeville. Cf. on 372 C. Plato recognizes the struggle for existence (Spencer, Data of Ethics, 6), and the “bellum omnium contra omnes,”Laws 625 E. Cf. Sidgwick, Method of Ethics, i, 2: “The Republic of Plato seems in many respects divergent from the reality. And yet he contemplates war as a permanent, unalterable fact to be provided for in the ideal state.” Spencer on the contrary contemplates a completely evolved society in which the ethics of militarism will disappear.
2 i.e. as well as the genesis of society. 369 B.
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