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[389d] the ruler catches anybody else in the city lying, any of the craftsmen“ Whether a prophet or healer of sickness or joiner of timbers,
Hom. Od. 17.383-384he will chastise him for introducing a practice as subversive1 and destructive of a state as it is of a ship.” “He will,” he said, “if deed follows upon word.2” “Again, will our lads not need the virtue of self-control?” “Of course.” “And for the multitude3 are not the main points of self-control these—to be obedient to their rulers and themselves to be rulers4

1 The word is chosen to fit both the ship and the state. Cf. 422 E, 442 B; and Alcaeus apud Aristophanes Wasps 1235, Euripides Phoen. 888, Aeschines iii. 158, Epictetus iii. 7. 20.

2 That is, probably, if our Utopia is realized. Cf. 452 Aεἰ πράξεται λέγεται. Cf. the imitation in Epistles 357 Aεἴπερ ἔργα ἐπὶ νο̂ͅ ἐγίγνετο.

3 For the mass of men, as distinguished from the higher philosophical virtue. Often misunderstood. For the meanings of σωγροσύνη cf. my review of Jowett's Plato, A.J.P. vol. xiii. (1892) p. 361. Cf. Unity of Plato's Thought, p. 15 and n. 77.

4 In Gorgias 491 D-E, Callicles does not understand what Socrates means by a similar expression.

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