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Next to Gadilon1 are the Saramene,2 and Amisus, a considerable city distant from Sinope about 900 stadia. Theopompus says that the Milesians were the first founders, * * * * * 3[then by] a chief of the Cappadocians; in the third place it received a colony of Atlenians under the conduct of Athenocles, and its name was changed to Piræus.

This city also was in the possession of the kings. Mithridates Eupator embellished it with temples, and added a part to it. Lucullus, and afterwards Pharnaces, who came from across the Bosporus, besieged it. Antony surrendered it to the kings of Pontus, after it had been declared free by Divus Cæsar. Then the Tyrant Strato oppressed the inhabitants, who again recovered their liberty under Cæsar Augustus after the battle of Actium. They are now in a prosperous condition. Among other fertile spots is Themiscyra,4 the abode of the Amazons, and Sidene.5 15. Themiscyra is a plain, partly washed by the sea, and distant about 60 stadia from the city (Amisus); and partly situated at the foot of a mountainous country, which is well wooded, and intersected with rivers, which have their source among the mountains. A river, named Thermodon, which receives the water of all these rivers traverses the plain.

Another river very similar to this, of the name of Iris,6 flowing from a place called Phanarœa,7 traverses the same plain. It has its sources in Pontus. Flowing westward through the city of Pontic Comana,8 and through Dazimonitis,9 a fertile plain, it then turns to the north beside Gaziura,10 an ancient seat of the kings, but now deserted; it then again returns to the east, where, uniting with the Scylax11 and other rivers, and taking its course beside the walls of my native place, Amaseia,12 a very strongly fortified city, proceeds to Phanarœa. There when joined by the Lycus,13 which rises in Armenia, it becomes the Iris. It then enters Themiscyra, and discharges itself into the Euxine. This plain, therefore, is well watered with dews, is constantly covered with herbage, and is capable of affording food to herds of cattle as well as to horses. The largest crops there consist of panic and millet, or rather they never fail, for the supply of water more than counteracts the effect of all drought; these people, therefore, never on any occasion experience a famine. The country at the foot of the mountains produces so large an autumnal crop of spontaneous-grown wild fruits, of the vine, the pear, the apple, and hazel, that, in all seasons of the year, persons who go into the woods to cut timber gather them in large quantities; the fruit is found either yet hanging upon the trees or lying beneath a deep covering of fallen leaves thickly strewed upon the ground. Wild animals of all kinds, which resort here on account of the abundance of food, are frequently hunted.

1 Wesir Kopti.

2 The district between the Halys (Kizil Irmak) and the Iris (Jeschil Irmak).

3 Some words of the text are lost.

4 The tract of country between the Iris and the Thermodon.

5 The territory on the east of the Thermodon (Termeh).

6 Jeschil Irmak.

7 Tasch Owa.

8 Gumenek.

9 Kas Owa.

10 Turchal.

11 Tschoterlek Irmak.

12 Amasija.

13 Germeili Tschai.

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