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After these are Italica,1 and Ilipa,2 situated on the Guadalquiver; farther on are Astygis,3 Carmo,4 and Obulco; and besides these Munda,5 Ategua, Urso,6 Tukkis,7 Julia,8 and Ægua, where the sons of Pompey were defeated. None of these places are far from Corduba. Munda is in some sort regarded as the metropolis of the whole district. This place is distant from Carteia 14009 stadia, and it was here that Cnæus fled after his defeat, and sailing thence landed on a rocky height overlooking the sea, where he was murdered. His brother Sextus, having escaped from Corduba, after carrying on the war for a short time in Spain, caused a revolt in Sicily. Flying thence into Asia he was seized at Miletus10 by the generals11 of Antony, and executed. Amongst the Kelts the most famous place is Conistorgis.12 Upon the estuaries is Asta,13 in which the Gaditani mostly hold their assemblies; it is opposite the sea-port of the island, at a distance of not more than 100 stadia.

1 This city, the native place of the emperors Trajan and Adrian, and the poet Silius Italicus, was founded by Publius Scipio in the second Punic war, who placed here the soldiers incapacitated from the performance of military service. It is supposed to correspond to Sevilla la Vieja, about a league distant from Seville.

2 The Ilipa Ilia of Pliny and Illipula Magna of Ptolemy. Its exact position is not determined.

3 Hodie Ecija on the Xenil.

4 Carmona.

5 Monda, seven leagues west of Malaga.

6 Osuna.

7 Hodie Martos, Pliny gave it the surname of Augusta Gemella.

8 The Itucci of Pliny, to which he gives the surname Virtus Julia.

9 We should probably read 430.

10 Kramer, using the criticism of Lachmann, observes that this is a misreading for Midaium, and that a like mistake occurs in Appian.

11 Furnius and Titius.

12 In Lusitania.

13 About the spot where this city is supposed to have stood, between Xerez and Tribugena, there is still a place called Mesa de Asta.

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