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From the Don and the Mæotis1 commences [Asia] on this side the Taurus; beyond these is [Asia] beyond the Taurus. For since this continent is divided into two by the chain of the Taurus, which extends from the extremities of Pamphylia to the shores of the Eastern Sea,2 inhabited by the Indians and neighbouring Scythians, the Greeks naturally called that part of the continent situated north of these mountains [Asia] on this side the Taurus, and that on the south [Asia] beyond the Taurus. Consequently the parts adjacent to the Mæotis and Don are on this side the Taurus. The first of these is the territory between the Caspian Sea and the Euxine, bounded on one side3 by the Don, the Exterior Ocean,4 and the Sea of Hyrcania; on the other5 by the Isthmus where it is narrowest from the recess of the Euxine to the Caspian.

Secondly, but still on this side the Taurus, are the countries above the Sea of Hyrcania as far as the Indians and Scythians, who dwell along the said sea6 and Mount Imaus. These countries are possessed on the one side by the Mæotæ,7 and the people dwelling between the Sea of Hyrcania and the Euxine as far as the Caucasus, the Iberians8 and Albanians,9 viz. the Sauromatians, Scythians,10 Achtæans, Zygi, and Heniochi: on the other side beyond the Sea of Hyrcania,11 by the Scythians,12 Hyrcanians, Parthians, Bactrians, Sogdians, and the other nations of India farther towards the north. To the south, partly by the Sea of Hyrcania, and partly by the whole isthmus which separates this sea from the Euxine, is situated the greater part of Armenia, Colchis,13 the whole of Cappadocia14 as far as the Euxine, and the Tibaranic nations.15 Further [west] is the country designated on this side the Halys,16 containing on the side of the Euxine and Propontis the Paphlagonians, Bithynians, Mysians, and Phrygia on the Hellespont, which comprehends the Troad; and on the side of the Ægæan and adjacent seas Æolia, Ionia, Caria, and Lycia. Inland is the Phrygia which contains that portion of Gallo-Græcia styled Galatia, Phrygia Epictetus,17 the Lycaonians, and the Lydians.

1 The Sea of Azof.

2 The Bay of Bengal.

3 The North.

4 The Northern Ocean.

5 The south.

6 The Bay of Bengal.

7 Sarmatian Mæotæ in the Greek text, but apparently incorrect.

8 Inhabitants of Georgia.

9 Inhabitants of Shirvan.

10 The Scythians here alluded to are the Tartars of Kuban; the Achæans and Zygi are the modern Ziketi; the Heniochi are the Abkazeti.

11 East of the Caspian.

12 These Scythians are the Tartars of the Kharasm. The Hyrcanians are the inhabitants of Daghistan and the Corcan. The Parthians occupied the north of Khorasan; the Bactrians the country of Balk. The Sogdians inhabited Bukaria, where are Samarcand and the valley of Al-Sogd.

13 Mingrelia.

14 Cappadocia comprehended a portion of the modern Roum and Karamania between the Euphrates and the river Halys.

15 Under this name Strabo included a portion of the kingdom of Pontus and other small tribes as far as Colchis.

16 Now the Kizil-Irmak.

17 The northern and western portions of Phrygia.

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