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Along the whole coast between Poplonium and Pisa these islands are clearly visible; they are oblong, and all three nearly parallel,1 running towards the south and Libya. Æthalia is by far smaller than either of the other two. The chorographer says that the shortest passage from Libya to Sardinia is 3002 miles. After Poplonium is the city of Cossæ, situated at a short distance from the sea: there is at the head of the bay a high hill upon which it is built; below it lies the port of Hercules,3 and near to it a marsh formed by the sea.4 At the summit of the cape which commands the gulf is a lookout for thunnies; for the thunny pursues his course along the coast, from the Atlantic Ocean as far as Sicily, in search not only of acorns, but also of the fish which furnishes the purple dye. As one sails along the coast from Cossæ to Ostia there are the towns of Gravisci,5 Pyrgi,6 Alsium,7 and Fregena.8 [From Cossæ] to Gravisci is a distance of 300 stadia, and between them is the place named Regis-Villa. This is said to have been the royal residence of Maleos the Pelasgian; they report that after he had reigned here for some time, he departed with his Pelasgians to Athens. These were of the same tribe as those who occupied Agylla. From Gravisci to Pyrgi is a little less than 180 stadia, and the sea-port town of the Cæretani is 30 stadia farther. [Pyrgi] contains a temple of Ilethyia9 founded by the Pelasgi, and which was formerly rich, but it was plundered by Dionysius the tyrant of the Sicilians, at the time10 of his voyage to Cyrnus.11 From Pyrgi to Ostia is 260 stadia; between the two are Alsium and Fregena. Such is our account of the coast of Tyrrhenia.

1 That is, Corsica and Sardinia run in a line north and south, and Elba lies to one side; the παοͅάλληλοι σχεδὸν αί τπεῖς is an example showing how happily a circumstance may be expressed in Greek, while no amount of labour will adapt an English equivalent.

2 The real distance, according to Gosselin, is 115 miles.

3 Porto Ercole

4 The Stagno d'Orbitello.

5 Situated in the marshy plain commanded by the heights of Corneto, between the Mignone and the Marta.

6 This town stood on the site of the present S. Severa, at the mouth of the Rio-Castrica.

7 The ancient Alsium occupied the site of the place now called Statua; below it are the vestiges of the Portus Alsiensis, at the embouchure of the Rio-Cupino, a little to the east of Palo.

8 Torre Macarese.

9 The Roman Lucina, in later times identical with Diana.

10 About the year 384 before the Christian era.

11 Corsica.

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