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But when Homer uses these expressions, ‘Masthles commanded the Carians, who speak a barbarous language,’1 it does not appear why, when he was acquainted with so many barbarous nations, he mentions the Carians alone as using a barbarous language, but does not call any people Barbarians. Nor is Thucydides right, who says that none were called Barbarians, because as yet the Greeks were not distinguished by any one name as opposed to some other. But Homer himself refutes this position that the Greeks were not distinguished by this name: “‘A man whose fame has spread through Greece and Argos;’2” and in another place— “‘But if you wish to go through Hellas and the middle of Argos.’3” But if there was no such term as Barbarian, how could he properly speak of people as Barbarophonoi (i. e. speaking a barbarous language)?

Neither is Thucydides nor Apollonius the grammarian right, because the Greeks, and particularly the Ionians, applied to the Carians a common term in a peculiar and vituperative sense, in consequence of their hatred of them for their animosity and continual hostile incursions. Under these circumstances he might call them Barbarians. But we ask, why does he call them Barbarophonoi, but not once Barbarians? Because, replies Apollonius, the plural number does not fall in with the metre; this is the reason why Homer does not call them Barbarians. Admitting then that the genitive case (βαρβάοͅων) does not fall in with the measure of the verse, the nominative case (βάοͅβαοͅοι) does not differ from that of Dardani (δάοͅδανοι); “‘Trojans, Lycians, and Dardani;’” and of the same kind is the word Troïi4 in this verse, “‘Like the Troïi horses’ (τοͅώιοι ἵπποι).”

Nor is the reason to be found in the alleged excessive harshness of the Carian language, for it is not extremely harsh; and besides, according to Philippus, the author of a history of Caria, their language contains a very large mixture of Greek words. I suppose that the word ‘barbarian’ was at first invented to designate a mode of pronunciation which was embarrassed, harsh, and rough; as we use the words battarizein, traulizein, psellizein,5 to express the same thing. For we are naturally very much disposed to denote certain sounds by names expressive of those sounds, and characteristic of their nature; and hence invented terms abound, expressive of the sounds which they designate, as kelaryzein, clange, psophos, boe, krotos,6 most of which words are at present used in an appropriate sense.

As those who pronounce their words with a thick enunciation are called Barbarians, so foreigners, I mean those who were not Greeks, were observed to pronounce their words in this manner. The term Barbarians was therefore applied peculiarly to these people, at first by way of reproach, as having a thick and harsh enunciation; afterwards the term was used improperly, and applied as a common gentile term in contradistinction to the Greeks. For after a long intimacy and intercourse had subsisted with the Barbarians, it no longer appeared that this peculiarity arose from any thickness of enunciation, or a natural defect in the organs of the voice, but from the peculiarities of their languages.

But there was in our language a bad and what might be called a barbarous utterance, as when any person speaking Greek should not pronounce it correctly, but should pronounce the words like the Barbarians, who, when beginning to learn the Greek language, are not able to pronounce it perfectly, as neither are we able to pronounce perfectly their languages.

This was peculiarly the case with the Carians. For other nations had not much intercourse with the Greeks, nor were disposed to adopt the Grecian manner of life, nor to learn our language, with the exception of persons who by accident and singly had associated with a few Greeks; but the Carians were dispersed over the whole of Greece, as mercenary soldiers. Then the barbarous pronunciation was frequently met with among them, from their military expeditions into Greece; and afterwards it spread much more, from the time that they occupied the islands together with the Greeks: not even when driven thence into Asia, could they live apart from Greeks, when the Ionians and Dorians arrived there.

Hence arose the expression, ‘to barbarize,’ for we are accustomed to apply this term to those whose pronunciation of the Greek language is vicious, and not to those who pronounce it like the Carians.

We are then to understand the expressions, ‘barbarous speaking’ and ‘barbarous speakers,’ of persons whose pronunciation of the Greek language is faulty. The word ‘to barbarize’ was formed after the word ‘to Carize,’ and transferred into the books which teach the Greek language; thus also the word ‘to solœcize’ was formed, derived either from Soli or some other source.

1 Il. ii. 867, in which the reading is νάστης, but μέσθλης in Il. ii. 864.

2 Od. i. 344.

3 Il. xv. 80.

4 Il. v. 222.

5 βατταοͅιζειν, τοͅαυλιζειν, ψελλίζειν.

6 κελαοͅύζειν, κλαγγὴ, ψόφος, βοὴ, κοͅότος.

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