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The first division of this country is the land extending along the Rhine from its source to its embouchure. Indeed, the valley of that river extends nearly as far as the whole breadth of Germany on the west. Of the people who occupied this country, some have been transplanted by the Romans into Keltica, the others have retired to the interior, as the Marsi;1 there are but few remaining, and some portion of them are Sicambri;2 next to the inhabitants of this valley succeeds the tribe dwelling between the Rhine and the river Elbe,3 which river flows towards the ocean in a direction nearly parallel with the Rhine, and traversing a country of no less extent. There are also between these other navigable rivers, such as the Ems,4 on which Drusus defeated the Bructeri5 in a naval engagement; all likewise flowing from south to north, and falling into the ocean; for the whole country rises towards the south, and forms a ridge of mountains near the Alps, which extends eastward as though it were a continuation of the Alps;6 and some have even so described it, as well on account of its position as because it produces the same system of vegetation; nevertheless, the altitude of this ridge in no part equals that of the Alps. Here is situated the Hercynian Wood,7 and the tribes of the Suevi,8 some of whom inhabit the forest, as do likewise some of the Quadi.9 Among these latter people is situated Bujemum, the royal city of Marobodus, whither he has assembled many strangers and many of the Marcomanni, a kindred nation with his own. This Marobodus, from a private station, raised himself to the administration of affairs after his return from Rome. For he went to that city while a youth, and was patronized by Augustus. After he came home, he acquired the sovereignty of his country, and added to the people I have enumerated, the Luji,10 a powerful nation, and the Zumi,11 and the Gutones12 and Mugilones and Sibini, besides the Semnones, another con- siderable tribe of the Suevi. As I have previously stated, a portion of the Suevi dwells within the Forest, while another portion occupies the territory beyond, on the frontiers of the Getæ; wherefore the nation of the Suevi is the most considerable, as it extends from the Rhine as far as the Elbe, and even a part of them, as the Hermonduri and the Langobardi, inhabit the country beyond the Elbe; but at the present time these tribes, having been defeated, have retired entirely beyond the Elbe. All these nations easily change their abode, on account of the scantiness of provisions, and because they neither cultivate the lands nor accumulate wealth, but dwell in miserable huts, and satisfy their wants from day to day, the most part of their food being supplied by the herd, as amongst the nomade races, and in imitation of them they transfer their households in waggons, wandering with their cattle to any place which may appear most advantageous. There are many other smaller German tribes, as the Cherusci, Chatti, Gamabrivi,13 Chattuarii, and next the ocean the Sicambri, Chaubi,14 Bructeri,15 Cimbri, Cauci, Caulci, Campsiani,16 and many others.

In the same direction with the Ems,17 the Weser18 and the river Lippe19 take their course, the latter, distant about 600 stadia from the Rhine, flows through the territory of the Lesser Bructeri. And there is also the river Sala,20 between which and the Rhine Drusus Germanicus died, whilst in the midst of his victories. He not only subdued the greater part of the German tribes, but also the islands on the coast he passed along, one amongst which is Byrchanis,21 which he took by siege.

1 The Marsi were a people dwelling on the banks of the Ems, near Munster.

2 The Sicambri were located near the Menapii. See above, p. 289.

3 The Albis.

4 Amasias.

5 The name of this tribe is written variously by different authors. They are supposed to have occupied the lands between the Rhine, the Ems, and the Lippe, but their boundaries were very uncertain, on account of their continual wars.

6 This refers to the chain of mountains which, running from the north of Switzerland, traverses Wurtemberg, Franconia, Bohemia, Moravia, and joins Mount Krapak.

7 The Hercynian Wood, or Black Forest, was either one or a succession of continuous forests, extending from the banks of the Rhine to the confines of Persia and Bactriana.

8 The Suevi occupied a considerable portion of Germany, to the north and east of Bohemia.

9 Coldui manuscripts. Kramer agrees with Cluverius in this instance, and we have followed Kramer's text.

10 The Lugii of Tacitus.

11 Zeus thinks these were the Burri of Dio Cassius, lxviii. 8. See Zeus, Die Deutschen, &c., p. 126.

12 Kramer has γούτωνας, although the MSS. have βούτωνας. He is led to this emendation by Cluverius and others. Cluv. Germ. Antiq. lib. iii. c. 34, page 625.

13 The Gambrivii of Tacitus, Germ. cap. 2.

14 Cluverius considers these were the Chamavi.

15 We have followed Kramer's text. MSS. read Bucteri.

16 For Caulci, Campsiani, Cluverius would read Cathulci, Campsani. A little further on Strabo calls the Campsiani Ampsani.

17 Amasias.

18 Visurgis.

19 Lupias.

20 Salas.

21 Borcum. Pliny calls this island Burchana, and adds, that the Romans gave it the name of Fabaria, on account of the beans (in Latin Faba) which grow there.

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