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 At 290 stadia from Antium is Mount Circæum, insulated by the sea and marshes. They say that it contains numerous roots, but this perhaps is only to harmonize with the myth relating to Circe. It has a small city, together with a temple to Circe and an altar to Minerva; they likewise say that a cup is shown which belonged to Ulysses. Between [Antium and Circæum] is the river Stura,1 which has a station for ships: the rest of the coast is exposed to the southwest wind,2 with the exception of this small harbour of Circæum.3 Above this, in the interior, is the Pomentine plain: the region next to this was formerly inhabited by the Ausonians, who likewise possessed Campania: next after these the Osci, who also held part of Campania; now, however, as we have remarked, the whole, as far as Sinuessa, belongs to the Latini. A peculiar fate has attended the Osci and Ausonians; for although the Osci have ceased to exist as a distinct tribe, their dialect is extant among the Romans, dramatic and burlesque pieces composed in it being still represented at certain games which were instituted in ancient times. And as for the Ausonians, although they never have dwelt by the sea of Sicily,4 it is named the Ausonian Sea. At 100 stadia from Circæum is Tarracina, formerly named Trachina,5 on account of its ruggedness; before it is a great marsh, formed by two rivers, the larger of which is called the Aufidus.6 This is the first place where the Via Appia approaches the sea. This road is paved from Rome to Brundusium,7 and has great traffic. Of the maritime cities, these alone are situated on it; Tarracina, beyond it Formiæ,8 Minturnæ,9 Sinuessa,10 and towards its extremity Tarentum and Brundusium. Near to Tarracina, advancing in the direction of Rome, a canal runs by the side of the Via Appia, which is supplied at intervals by water from the marshes and rivers. Travellers generally sail up it by night, embarking in the evening, and landing in the morning to travel the rest of their journey by the way; however, during the day the passage boat is towed by mules.11 Beyond is Formiæ, founded by the Lacedæmonians, and formerly called Hormiæ, on account of its excellent port. Between these [two cities],12 is a gulf which they have named Caiata,13 in fact all gulfs are called by the Lacedæmonians Caietæ: some, however, say that the gulf received this appellation from [Caieta], the nurse of Æneas. From Tarracina to the promontory of Caiata is a length of 100 stadia. Here14 are opened vast caverns, which contain large and sumptuous mansions. From hence to Formiæ is a distance of 40 stadia. Between this city and Sinuessa, at a distance of about 80 stadia from each, is Minturnæ. The river Liris,15 formerly named the Clanis, flows through it. It descends from the Apennines, passes through the country of the Vescini,16 and by the village of Fregellæ, (formerly a famous city,) and so into a sacred grove situated below the city, and held in great veneration by the people of Minturnæ. There are two islands, named Pandataria and Pontia,17 lying in the high sea, and clearly discernible from the caverns. Although small, they are well inhabited, are not at any great distance from each other, and at 250 stadia from the mainland. Cæcubum is situated on the gulf of Caiata, and next to it Fundi, a city on the Via Appia. All these places produce excellent wines; but those of Cæcubum, Fundi, and Setia18 are most in repute, and so are the Falernian, Alban,19 and Statanian wines. Sinuessa is situated in a gulf from which it takes its name, sinus signify- ing [in Latin] a gulf. Near to it are some fine hot-baths, good for the cure of various maladies. Such are the maritime cities of Latium.
1 Storas, the Astura of Pliny.
3 Hodie, the Porto di Paula, connected with the Lake of S. Maria.
4 This does not appear to be in accordance with the statement of Dionysius Halicarnassus and Pliny, that the Ausonians anciently possessed the whole coast, from the Strait of Messina to the entrance of the Adriatic.
5 Or mountainous.
6 We should doubtless here read the Ufens, the modern Ufente.
8 Mola di Gaeta.
9 The ruins of this town are extant on either bank of the Garigliano, the ancient Liris.
10 Rocca di Monte Dragone.
11 Compare Horace, Satir. l. i. sat. 5.
12 Tarracina and Formiæ.
14 At Sperlunga.
15 The Garigliano.
16 Vestini, MSS.
18 Sezza. The French translators think this should be Vescia.
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