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Ephorus, in the fourth book of his History, which is entitled ‘Of Europe,’ having gone over Europe as far as the Scythians, concludes by saying that there is great difference in the manner of life both of the Sauromatæ and the other Scythians, for while some of them are exceedingly morose, and are indeed cannibals, others abstain even from the flesh of animals. Other historians, he observes, descant upon their ferocity, knowing that the terrible and the wonderful always excite attention; but they ought also to relate the better features of these people, and point to them as a pattern; for his part, he declares he will speak of those who excel in the justness of their actions, as there are some of the nomade Scythians who subsist on mares' milk, and excel all men in their justice, these are mentioned by the poets: as Homer, where he says that Jupiter beheld the land

“ Of the Galactophagi and Abii, justest of mankind;1

Iliad xiii. 5.
and Hesiod, in his poem entitled ‘Travels round the World,’ who says that Phineus was taken by the Harpies “ To the land of the Galactophagi, who have their dwellings in waggons.

” Ephorus then proceeds to state the causes of their justice, because they are frugal in their mode of life, not hoarders of wealth, and just towards each other; they possess everything in common, both their women, their children, and the whole of their kin; thus when they come into collision with other nations, they are irresistible and unconquered, having no cause for which they need endure slavery. He then cites Chœrilus, who in his ‘Passage of the Bridge of Boats,’ which Darius2 had made, says, “‘And the sheep-feeding Sacæ, a people of Scythian race, but they inhabited Wheat-producing Asia: truly they were a colony of the nomades, A righteous race.’” And again Ephorus declares of Anacharsis, whom he designates as ‘The Wise,’ that he was sprung from that race; and that he was reckoned as one of the Seven Sages, on account of his pre-eminent moderation and knowledge. He asserts too that he was the inventor of the bellows, the double- fluked anchor, and the potter's wheel.3 I merely state this, although I know very well that Ephorus is not at all times to be relied on, especially when speaking of Anacharsis; (for how can the wheel be his invention, with which Homer, who is anterior to him, was acquainted; [who says],

“ as when, before his wheel
Seated, the potter twirls it with both hands," &c.;4

Iliad xviii. 600.
for I wish to show by these references, that there was a ge- neral impression among both the ancients and moderns with regard to the nomades, that some were very far removed from the rest of mankind, that they subsisted on milk, and were very frugal,5 and the most just of men, and that all this was not the mere invention of Homer.

1 Iliad xiii. 5.See note 4 to page 460.

2 Kramer quotes Nækius in proof that we should here read Xerxes instead of Darius; and Groskurd refers to another passage in Strabo, book xiii chap. i. § 22.

3 Casaubon observes that Diodorus Siculus attributes the invention of the potter's wheel to Talus, a nephew of Dædalus, and that Theophrastus awards it to one Hyberbius of Corinth.

4 Iliad xviii. 600. Posidonius chose to regard this passage as an interpolation, and would not give the praise of the invention to any other than Anacharsis.

5 ἀβίους.

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