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22. ταῦτα γάρthese, in fact, were the strongest navies, i.e. the strongest possessed by Iomans (cf. 14.6).

23. φαίνεται with χρώμενα and ἐξηρτυμένα: ‘though these fleets were built ... we find’ etc.

25. πεντηκοντόροις—Gardner and Jevons, p. 652. It is plain from Herod. 1. 163 that penteconters counted as νῆες μακραί, and stand in contrast to νῆες στρογγύλαι, merchant-ships (cf. Thuc. 2.97. 1). Therefore the πλοῖα μακρά are doubtless long ships of larger and smaller size than penteconters. To their resemblance in size to merchant - ships the word πλοῖα seems to point.

26. ἐκεῖνα—those existing in the time of the Trojan War.

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