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2. ἐπεγένετο—often of unfavourable occurrences, especially of anything sudden and unexpected, such as natural phenomena.

3. ἄλλοθιin different parts.

μή—according to the constr, with verbs of hindrance (M.T. 749, 807), though κωλύω generally has the simple infin.

4. καίand in particular.Ἴωσι is governed both by προχωρησάντων and by ὲπεστράτευσε There is an anacoluthon at ἐπεστρύτευσε, for strictly ὲπεγένετο should govern Ἴωσι with an abstract noun parallel to κωλύματα for its subject.

6. βασιλεία—MSS. authority is altogether in favour of this against ἐξουσία, and ἐξουσία does not seem to occur before Aristotle in this sense. Stahl thinks βασιλεία is a gloss on ἐξουσία. But it is possible that ἐξουσία itself is a gloss. The matter is complicated by the fact that both βασιλεία and ἐξουσία have a double sense (ἐξουσία, power to do a thing, a ‘power’; cf. βασιλεία τὸ ἀξίωμα καὶ τὸ ἔθνος βασιλευόμενον, Suidas). Of course here the sense is concrete.

Κροῖσον—the destruction of the Lydian monarchy was 546 B.C., Herod 1.87 etc.

ὅσα—a part. of εἰμί is constantly omitted after ὅσος.

ἐντὸς Ἅλυος ποταμοῦ ἐντός from the Greek point of view. When ποταμός is added the art. is regularly inserted before the name of a river in Attic. But Herod. does not use the art., and Thuc. omits it in six passages. The only other known exx. are Isocr. 7, 80 (also ἐντὸς Ἅλυος π.) and Xen. Anab. 4.7.18.

9. καὶ τὰς νήσους—according to Herod. 1. 169, when the Ioman cities of the mainland submitted to Harpagus, the islands also gave in; but no doubt the submission of the islands was incomplete. Otherwise the rise of Polycrates would be unaccountable. Thuc. alludes to their reduction after Lade, 494 B.C.

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