—the meaning of this term in Greek rhetoric is not merely ‘example,’ but ‘an example used to support an argument.
—referring to the sentence that follows, ἐκ γάρ κτλ
—explained by διά
29. διὰ τὰς μετοικίας κτλ
.—that it was owing to the habit of settling elsewhere (to which I have referred) that Greece in other respects (besides population and security) had not advanced so fast (as Attica). μετοικίας
is used exactly as in Aesch. Eum. 1019
, where the Furies refer to their μετοικία
to and in Athens. 1. That ἐκ γάρ κτλ
. explains τόδε
is proved by the usage of Thuc. 2. διὰ ... αὐξηθῆναι
is beset with difficulties. With the MS. reading τὰς μετοικίας ἐς τὰ ἄλλα
three explanatious have been proposed: (a) ‘Attica
did not grow in other respects so fast
as in population.’ But this does not fall in with the general line of the argument. (b) ‘Attica
through the presence of μέτοικοι
advanced much more
) in other respects.’ But neither is this the argument, nor is there any proof that μὴ ὁμοίως
can in such a connexion as this mean much more.
(c) With regard to the rendering given above, it is denied that Greece
can be the subject of αὐξηθῆναι
. But, if we examine c. 2
as a whole, this does not appear impossible. The chapter deals with the early condition of Greece in general—ἡ νῦν Ἑλλάς καλουυένη
—the smallness of the communities (οὔτε μεγέθει πόλεων ἴσχυον
) and their weakness. To these conditions the very fertility of the soil contributed. Attica, which was barren, was an exception in both respects. It did not lose inhabitants by στάσις
: it did not excite the cupidity of strangers. On the other hand, strangers settled in Attica because it offered security; and thus the population of Attica was still further increased, and it was able to colonise. These last facts lend further support to my general argument (ὁ λόγος
), viz. that the weakness of the early Greeks in all respects is largely accounted for by the shifting nature of the population. ἡ Ἑλλάς
is in the writer's mind throughout. ἐς τὰ ἄλλα
is explained by many ‘with reference to its other parts’; but it more naturally means in other respects than those points to which I have specifically referied.
A striking example of this (ex contrario
) is the colonising energy of Attica, the consequence of freedom from migration. Some take ὲς τὰ ἄλλα
—migrations to other parts; but τά
is then wrong. Ullrich's emendation, according to which τὰ ἄλλα
, other parts of Greece,
is subject of αὐξηθῆναι
—see crit. 11.—is generally accepted; but it is not absolutely necessary.
—referring to ὑπὸ ἀλλοφύλων ἐπεβουλεύοντο
3. οἱ δυνατώτατοι
—limiting apposition to οἱ ἐκπίπτοντες
. This kind of apposition is common in Thuc.—The most conspicuous instance is that of the Alcmaeonidae from Pylus.
ὡς βέβαιον ὄν
—taken as (1) accus. abs.
, with ἀναχωρεῖν παρ᾽ Ἀθηναίους
implied; (2) by Classen as governed by παρά
, in a loose apposition to Ἀθηναίους.
The second, though loose in grammar, gives a better sense.
4. πολῖται γιγνόμενοι
—the imperf. partic, points to the many instances in which citizenship was bestowed. Of course this system of conferring civic rights belongs to a time when only the Eupatrids had any political power. They admitted new families freely. In later days, on the contrary, when Athens had attained power and the demos ruled, the Ecclesia was very jealous of the citizenship. Yet this welcome of political exiles remained an houourable tradition, as we see from the plays of Euripides
εὐθὺς ἀπὸ παλαιοῦ
, but εὐθύς
belongs to ἀπὸ π
., being equivalent to ἀρξάμενοι εὐθύς
: cf. c. 146
and 142. 7
—sc. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι
. The colonising activity of Attica is supposed to have begun in the eleventh cent. B.C.