THE places beyond the Mæander, which remain to be
described, belong to the Carians. The Carians here are not
intermixed with Lydians, but occupy the whole country by
themselves, if we except a small portion of the sea-coast, of
which the Milesians and Mysians have taken possession.
begins on the sea-coast opposite to Rhodes, and ends
belonging to the Milesians. In the interior
are the extremities of Taurus, which extend as far as the
Mæander. For the mountains situated above the Chelidonian islands,3
as they are called, which lie in front of the
confines of Pamphylia and Lycia, are, it is said, the beginning of the Taurus; for the Taurus has there some elevation,
and indeed a mountainous ridge of Taurus separates the
whole of Lycia towards the exterior and the southern part
from Cibyra and its district, as far as the country opposite to
Rhodes. Even there a mountainous tract is continued; it is,
however, much lower in height, and is not considered as any
longer belonging to Taurus, nor is there the distinction of
parts lying within and parts lying without the Taurus, on account of the eminences and depressions being scattered about
through the whole country both in breadth and length, and
not presenting anything like a separation-wall.
The whole voyage along the coast, including the winding
of the bays, is 4900 stadia, and that along the country opposite to Rhodus 1500 stadia.
The beginning of this tract is Dædala,4
and ends at the mountain Phœnix,5
as it is called, both of
which belong to the Rhodian territory. In front, at the distance of 120 stadia from Rhodes, lies Eleussa.6
In sailing from
Dædala towards the west in a straight line along Cilicia,
Pamphylia, and Lycia, in the midway is a bay called Glaucus,
with good harbours; then is the promontory Artemisium, and
a temple; next, the grove sacred to Latona; above this, and at
the distance of 60 stadia, is Calynda, a city; then Caunus,7
a deep river near it, the Calbis,8
which may be entered by
vessels; between these is Pisilis.
The city Caunus has a naval arsenal and a close harbour. Above the city upon a height is Imbrus, a stronghold.
Although the country is fertile, yet the city is allowed by all
to be unhealthy in summer, on account of the heat, and in
autumn, from the abundance of fruits.
Stories of the following kind are related respecting the city.
Stratonicus, the player on the cithara, seeing the Caunians
somewhat dark and yellow,9
said that this was what the poet
meant in the line,
“‘As are the leaves, so is the race of men.’10
When he was accused of ridiculing the unhealthiness of the
city, he answered, ‘Can I be so bold as to call that city unhealthy, where even the dead walk about?’
The Caunians once revolted from the Rhodians, but, by a
decision of the Romans, they were received again by the
Rhodians into favour. There is in existence an oration of
Molo against the Caunians.
It is said that they speak the same language as the Carians,
that they came from Crete, and retained their own laws and
Next is Physcus,12
a small town; it has a port and a
grove sacred to Latona: then Loryma, a rugged line of seacoast, and a mountain, the highest of any in that quarter, on
the summit of which is Phoenix, a stronghold, of the same
name as the mountain. In front is the island Eleussa, at the
distance of 4 stadia. Its circumference is about 8 stadia.
The city of the Rhodians is on the eastern promontory.
With regard to harbours, roads, walls, and other buildings, it
so much surpasses other cities, that we know of none equal,
much less superior to it.
Their political constitution and laws were excellent, and
the care admirable with which they administered affairs of
state generally, and particularly those relative to their marine.
Hence being for a long period masters of the sea, they put
an end to piracy, and became allies of the Romans, and of
those kings who were well affected to the Romans and the
Greeks; hence also the city was suffered to preserve her independence, and was embellished with many votive offerings.
These are distributed in various places, but the greatest part
of them are deposited in the Dionysium and in the gymnasium. The most remarkable is the Colossus of the Sun, which,
the author of the iambics says, was
“‘seventy cubits in height, the work of Chares of Lindus.’”
It now lies on the ground, having been thrown down by an
earthquake, and is broken off at the knees. An oracle prohibited its being raised again. This is the most remarkable of the
votive offerings, and it is allowed to be one of the seven
wonders of the world.13
There were also the pictures by
the Ialysus, and the Satyr, who was represented
standing by a pillar. On the top of the pillar was a partridge.
The bird strongly attracted, as was natural, the gaping admiration of the people, when the picture was first hung up in
public, and they were so much delighted, that the Satyr,
although executed with great skill, was not noticed. The
partridge-breeders were still more struck with the picture of
the bird. They brought tame partridges, which, when placed
opposite to the picture, made their call, and drew together
crowds of people. When Protogenes observed that the principal had become the subordinate part of his work, he obtained
permission of the curators of the temple to efface the bird,
which he did.
The Rhodians, although their form of government is not
democratic, are attentive to the welfare of the people, and endeavour to maintain the multitude of poor. The people receive allowances of corn, and the rich support the needy, according to an ancient usage. There are also public offices in
the state, the object of which is to procure and distribute
so that the poor may obtain subsistence, and the
city not suffer for want of persons to serve her, especially in
manning her fleets.
Some of the dockyards are kept private, and the multitude
are prohibited from seeing them. If any person should be
found inspecting, or to have entered them, he would be punished with death. As at Massalia and Cyzicus,16
so here particularly, everything relating to architects, the manufacture of
engines, stores of arms, and of other materials, is administered
with peculiar care, much more so than in other places.
Like the people of Halicarnasus,17
Cnidus, and Cos, the
Rhodians are of Doric origin. Some of the Dorians, who
founded Megara after the death of Codrus, remained there;
others associated themselves with the colony which went to
Crete under the conduct of Althæmenes the Argive; the
rest were distributed at Rhodus, and among the cities just
But these migrations are more recent than the events re-
lated by Homer. For Cnidus and Halicarnasus were not
then in existence. Rhodes and Cos existed, but were inhabited by Heracleidæ. Tlepolemus, when he attained manhood,
“‘slew the maternal uncle of his father, the aged Licymnius. He immediately built ships, and, collecting a large body of people, fled away with
and adds afterwards—
“‘after many sufferings on the voyage, he came to Rhodes; they settled
there according to their tribes, in three bodies:’”
and mentions by name the cities then existing19
“‘Lindus, Ialysus, and the white Cameirus,’”
the city of the Rhodians not being yet founded.
Homer does not here mention Dorians by name, but means
Æolians and Bœotians, since Hercules and Licymnius lived in
Bœotia. If however, as others relate, Tlepolemus set out from
Argos and Tiryns, even so the colony would not be Dorian,
for it was settled before the return of the Heracleidæ.
And of the Coans also Homer says—
“‘their leaders were Pheidippus and Antiphus, two sons of Thessalus the
King, an Heracleid;’20
and these names designate rather an Æolian than a Dorian
Rhodes was formerly called Ophiussa and Stadia, then
Telchinis, from the Telchines, who inhabited the island.21
These Telchines are called by some writers charmers and
enchanters, who besprinkle animals and plants, with a view to
destroy them, with the water of the Styx, mingled with sulphur. Others on the contrary say, that they were persons
who excelled in certain mechanical arts, and that they were
calumniated by jealous rivals, and thus acquired a bad reputation; that they came from Crete, and first landed at Cyprus,
and then removed to Rhodes. They were the first workers
in iron and brass, and were the makers of Saturn's scythe.
I have spoken of them before, but the variety of fables
which are related of them induces me to resume their history,
and to supply what may have been omitted.
After the Telchines, the Heliadæ22
were said, according
to fabulous accounts, to have occupied the island. One of
these Heliadæ, Cercaphus, and his wife Cydippe had children,
who founded the cities called after their names—
“‘Lindus, Ialysus, and the white Cameirus.’23
Others say, that Tlepolemus founded them, and gave to them
the names of some of the daughters of Danaüs.
The present city was built during the Peloponnesian
war, by the same architect,24
it is said, who built the Piræus.
The Piræus, however, does not continue to exist, having formerly sustained injuries from the Lacedæmonians, who threw
down the walls, and then from Sylla, the Roman general.
It is related of the Rhodians that their maritime affairs
were in a flourishing state, not only from the time of the foundation of the present city, but that many years before the institution of the Olympic festival, they sailed to a great distance from
their own country for the protection of sailors. They sailed
as far as Spain, and there founded Rhodus, which the people
of Marseilles afterwards occupied; they founded Parthenope25
among the Opici, and Elpiæ in Daunia, with the assistance of
Coans. Some authors relate, that after their return from Troy
they colonized the Gymnasian islands. According to Timæus,
the greater of these islands is the largest known,26
seven following, Sardinia, Sicily, Cyprus, Crete, Eubœa,27
Corsica, and Lesbos; but this is a mistake, for these others
are much larger. It is said, that gymnetes (or light-armed
) are called by the Phœnicians balearides, and that
from hence the Gymnasian islands were called Balearides.
Some of the Rhodians settled in the neighbourhood of
Sybaris, in the Chonian territory.29
Homer seems to bear
evidence of the former prosperity of the Rhodians, from the
very foundation of the three cities;
“‘they settled according to their tribes, in three companies, and were the
favourites of Jupiter, who showered upon them great wealth.’30
Other writers have applied these verses to a fable, according
to which, at the birth of Minerva, it rained gold on the island
from the head of Jupiter, as Pindar has said.31
The island is 920 stadia in circumference.
In sailing from the city, and leaving the island on the
right hand, the first place we meet with is Lindus,32
situated on a mountain extending far towards the south, and
particularly towards Alexandreia (in Egypt).33
here a celebrated temple of the Lindian Diana, built by the
Danaides. Formerly, the Lindians, like the inhabitants of
and Ialyssus, formed an independent state, but
afterwards they all settled at Rhodes.
Cleobulus, one of the seven wise men, was a native of
Next to Lindus is Ixia,35
a stronghold, and Mnasyrium; then the Atabyris,36
the highest mountain in the island,
sacred to Jupiter Atabyrius; then Cameirus; then Ialysus a
village, and above it is an acropolis called Ochyroma (the
Fortification); then, at the distance of about 80 stadia, the city
of the Rhodians. Between these is the Thoantium, a sort of
beach, immediately in front of which are situated the Sporades
islands lying about Chalcis, which we have mentioned before.37
There have been many remarkable persons, natives of
Rhodes, both generals and athlete, among whom were the
ancestors of Panætius the philosopher. Among statesmen,
orators, and philosophers, were Panætius, Stratocles, Andronicus the Peripatetic, Leonides the Stoic, and long before the
time of these persons, Praxiphanes, Hieronymus, and Eudemus. Poseidonius was concerned in the administration of the
affairs of state, and taught philosophy at Rhodes, (but he was
a native of Apameia in Syria,) as did Apollonius Malacus, and
Molon, who were natives of Alabanda, and disciples of Menecles the rhetorician. Apollonius had resided at Rhodes long
before, but Molon came late; whence the former said to him
‘late comer,’ οψὲ μολών,
instead of ἐλθών.38
Rhodian poet, author of the Heracleia; Simmias the grammarian, and Aristocles, of our time. Dionysius the Thracian,
and Apollonius, author of the Argonautics, although natives of
Alexandreia, were called Rhodians.
This is sufficient on the subject of the island of Rhodes.
There is a bend of the Carian coast opposite to Rhodes,
immediately after Eleus39
and Loryma, towards the north, and
then the ship's course is in a straight line to the Propontis,40
and forms as it were a meridian line of about 500 stadia in
length, or somewhat less. Along this line are situated the remainder of Caria, Ionians, Æolians, Troy, and the parts
about Cyzicus and Byzantium. Next to Loryma is tile Cynossema, or dogs' monument,41
and the island Syme.42
Then follows Cnidus,43
which has two harbours, one of
which is a close harbour, fit for receiving triremes, and a naval
station for 20 vessels. In front of Cnidus is an island, in circumference about 7 stadia; it rises high, in the form of a
theatre, and is united by a mole to the continent, and almost
makes Cnidus a double city, for a great part of the inhabitants occupy the island, which shelters both harbours. Opposite to it, far out at sea, is Nisyrus.44
Illustrious natives of Cnidus were, first, Eudoxus the mathematician, a disciple of Plato's; Agatharchides, the Peripatetic
philosopher and historian; Theopompus, one of the most powerful of the friends of divus Cæsar, and his son Artemidorus.
Ctesias also, the physician of Artaxerxes, was a native of this
place. He wrote a history of Assyria and Persia.
Next after Cnidus are Ceramus45
and Bargasa, small towns
overlooking the sea.
Then follows Halicarnasus, formerly called Zephyra,
the royal seat of the dynasts of Caria. Here is the sepulchre
of Mausolus, one of the seven wonders of the world;46
Artemisia erected it, in honour of her husband. Here also is
the fountain Salmacis, which has a bad repute, for what reason I know not, for making those who drink of it effeminate.
Mankind, enervated by luxury, impute the blame of its effects
to different kinds of air and water, but these are not the
causes of luxury, but riches and intemperance.
There is an acropolis at Halicarnasus. In front of it lies
It had, among others, as its founders, Anthes
and a body of Trœzenians.48
Among the natives of Halicarnasus were Herodotus the
historian, who was afterwards called Thurius, because he was
concerned in sending out the colony to Thurii; Heracleitus
the poet, the friend of Callimachus; and in our time, Dionysius
Halicarnasus suffered, when it was taken by storm by
Alexander. Hecatomnus, who was then king of the Carians,
had three sons, Mausolus, Hidrieus, and Pixodarus, and two
daughters. Mausolus, the eldest son, married Artemisia, the
eldest daughter; Hidrieus, the second son, married Ada,
the other sister. Mausolus came to the throne, and, dying
without children, left the kingdom to his wife, by whom the
above-mentioned sepulchre was erected. She pined away for
grief at the loss of her husband. Hidrieus succeeded her; lie
died a natural death, and was succeeded by his wife Ada.
She was ejected by Pixodarus, the surviving son of Hecatomnus. Having espoused the party of the Persians, Pixodarus
sent for a satrap to share the kingdom with him. After the
death of Pixodarus, the satrap became master of Halicarnasus.
But upon the arrival of Alexander, he sustained a siege. His
wife was Ada, daughter of Pixodarus, and Aphneïs, a woman
of Cappadocia. But Ada, the daughter of Hecatomnus, whom
Pixodarus ejected, entreated Alexander, and endeavoured to
prevail upon him to reïnstate her in the kingdom of which
she had been deprived; she promised (in return) her assistance in reducing to obedience the parts of the country which
had revolted; for the persons who were in possession of them
were her relations and subjects. She also delivered up Alinda,
where she herself resided. Alexander granted her request,
and proclaimed her queen, after the city was taken, but not
the acropolis, which was doubly fortified. He assigned to
Ada the siege of the acropolis, which was taken in a short
time afterwards, the besiegers having attacked it with fury
and exasperation at the resistance of the besieged.
Next is Termerium,49
a promontory of the Myndians,
opposite to which lies Scandaria, a promontory of Cos, distant
40 stadia from the continent. There is also above the promontory a fortress, Termerum.
The city of the Coans was formerly called Astypalæa,
and was built in another place, but is at present on the sea-coast. Afterwards, on account of a sedition, they migrated
to the present city, near Scandarium, and changed the name to
that of the island, Cos. The city is not large, but beautifully
built, and a most pleasing sight to mariners who are sailing
by the coast. The island is about 550 stadia in circumference.
The whole of it is fertile, and produces, like Chios and Lesbos,
excellent wine. It has, towards the south, the promontory
from which to Nicyrus is 60 stadia, and near Laceter
is Halisarna, a stronghold; on the west is Drecanum, and a
village called Stomalimne. Drecanum is distant about 200
stadia from the city. The promontory Laceter adds to the
length of the navigation 35 stadia. In the suburb is the celebrated temple Asclepieium, full of votive offerings, among
which is the Antigonus of Apelles. It formerly contained
the Venus Anadyomene, (Venus emerging from the sea,) but
that is now at Rome, dedicated to divus Cæsar by Augustus,
who consecrated to his father the picture of her who was the
author of his family. It is said that the Coans obtained, as a
compensation for the loss of this painting, an abatement,
amounting to a hundred talents, of their usual tribute.
It is said, that Hippocrates learned and practised the dietetic
part of medicine from the narrative of cures suspended in the
temple. He is one of the illustrious natives of Cos. Simus,
also, the physician, Philetas the poet and critic, Nicias of our
time, who was tyrant of Cos; Ariston, the disciple and heir of
Ariston the Peripatetic philosopher; and Theomnestus, a minstrel of name, who was of the opposite political party to Nicias.
On the coast of the continent opposite to the Myndian
territory is Astypalæa a promontory, and Zephyrium. The city
Myndus follows immediately after, which has a harbour; then
the city Bargylia. In the intervening distance is Caryanda51
harbour, and an island of the same name, occupied by Caryandians. Scylax the ancient historian was a native of this
island. Near Bargylia is the temple of Artemis Cindyas,
round which the rain falls, it is believed, without touching it.
There was once a strong place called Cindya.
Among the distinguished natives of Bargylia was Protarchus
the Epicurean; Demetrius surnamed Lacon was his disciple.
Next follows Iasus, situated upon an island,52
on the side
towards the continent. It has a port, and the inhabitants
derive the greatest part of their subsistence from the sea,
which abounds with fish, but the soil is very barren. Stories
of the following kind are related of Iasus.
As a player on the cithara was displaying his art in public,
every one listened to him attentively till the market bell rung
for the sale of fish, when he was deserted by all except one
man, who was quite deaf. The minstrel coming up to him
said, ‘Friend, I am much obliged to you for the honour you
have done me, and I admire your love of music, for all the
others have left me at the sound of the bell.’—‘What say you,
has the bell rung?’—‘Yes, he replied?’—‘Good bye to
you,’ said the man, and away he also went.
Diodorus the Dialectician was a native of this place. He
was surnamed Cronus (or Old Time); the title was not properly his from the first; it was his master Apollonius who (in
the first instance) had received the surname of Cronus, but it
was transferred to Diodorus on account of the want of celebrity
in the true Cronus.
Next to Iasus is Cape Poseidium53
of the Milesians. In
the interior are three considerable cities, Mylasa,54
The others are guard forts to these or to
the maritime towns, as Amyzon, Heracleia, Euromus, Chalcetor. But we make little account of these.
Mylasa is situated in a very fertile plain; a mountain,
containing a very beautiful marble quarry, overhangs the
city; and it is no small advantage to have stone for building
in abundance and near at hand, particularly for the construction of temples and other public edifices; consequently, no
city is embellished more beautifully than this with porticos
and temples. It is a subject of surprise, however, that persons should be guilty of the absurdity of building the city at
the foot of a perpendicular and lofty precipice. One of the
governors of the province is reported to have said, when he
expressed his astonishment at this circumstance, ‘If the
founder of the city had no fear, he had no shame.’
The Mylasians have two temples, one of Jupiter called
Osogo, and another of Jupiter Labrandenus. The former is
in the city. Labranda is a village on the mountain, near the
passage across it from Alabanda to Mylasa, at a distance from
the city. At Labranda is an ancient temple of Jupiter, and
a statue of Jupiter Stratius, who is worshipped by the neighbouring people and by the inhabitants of Mylasa. There is
a paved road for a distance of about 60 stadia from the temple
to the city; it is called the Sacred Way, along which the sacred
things are carried in procession. The most distinguished
citizens are always the priests, and hold office during life.
These temples belong peculiarly to the city. There is a third
temple of the Carian Jupiter, common to all the Carians, in
the use of which the Lydians, also, and Mysians participate,
as being brethren.
Mylasa is said to have been anciently a village, but the
native place and royal residence of Hecatomnus and the Carians.
The city approaches nearest to the sea at Physcus, which is
their naval arsenal.
Mylasa has produced in our time illustrious men, who
were at once orators and demagogues, Euthydemus and
Hybreas. Euthydemus inherited from his ancestors great
wealth and reputation. He possessed commanding eloquence,
and was regarded as a person of eminence, not only in his
own country, but was thought worthy of the highest honours
even in Asia. The father of Hybreas, as he used to relate
the circumstance in his school, and as it was confirmed by his
fellow-citizens, left him a mule which carried wood, and a
mule driver. He was maintained for a short time by their
labour, and was enabled to attend the lectures of Diotrephes
of Antioch. On his return he held the office of superintendent
of the market. But here being harassed, and gaining but
little profit, he applied himself to the affairs of the state, and
to attend to the business of the forum. He quickly advanced
himself, and became an object of admiration, even during the
lifetime of Euthydemus, and still more after his death, as the
leading person in the city. Euthydemus possessed great
power, and used it for the benefit of the city, so that if some
of his acts were rather tyrannical, this character was lost in
their public utility.
The saying of Hybreas, at the conclusion of an harangue to
the people, is applauded: ‘Euthydemus, you are an evil necessary to the city; for we can live neither with thee nor without
Hybreas, although he had acquired great power, and had
the reputation of being both a good citizen and an excellent
orator, was defeated in his political opposition to Labienus.
For the citizens, unarmed, and disposed to peace, surrendered
to Labienus, who attacked them with a body of troops and with
Parthian auxiliaries, the Parthians being at that time masters
of Asia. But Zeno of Laodiceia and Hybreas, both of them
orators, did not surrender, but caused their own cities to revolt. Hybreas provoked Labienus, an irritable and vain young
man, by saying, when the youth announced himself emperor
of the Parthians, ‘Then I shall call myself emperor of the
Carians.’ Upon this Labienus marched against the city,
having with him cohorts drafted from the Roman soldiery
stationed in Asia. He did not however take Hybreas prisoner,
who had retreated to Rhodes, but plundered and destroyed
his house, which contained costly furniture, and treated the
whole city in the same manner. After Labienus had left
Asia, Hybreas returned, and restored his own affairs and those
of the city to their former state.
This then on the subject of Mylasa.
Stratoniceia is a colony of Macedonians. It was embellished by the kings with costly edifices. In the district of
the Stratoniceians are two temples. The most celebrated, that
of Hecate, is at Lagina, where every year great multitudes
assemble at a great festival. Near the city is the temple of
which is common to all the Carians,
and whither they repair to offer sacrifice, and to deliberate on
their common interests. They call this meeting tile Chrysa-
oreōn, which is composed of villages. Those who represent
the greatest number of villages have the precedency in voting,
like the Ceramiētæ. The Stratoniceians, although they are
not of Carian race, have a place in this assembly, because
they possess villages included in the Chrysaoric body.
In the time of our ancestors there flourished at Stratoniceia
a distinguished person, Menippus the orator, surnamed Catocas, whom Cicero59
commends in one of his writings above all
the Asiatic orators whom he had heard, comparing him to
Xenocles, and to those who flourished at that time.
There is another Stratoniceia, called Stratoniceia at the
Taurus, a small town adjacent to the mountain.
Alabanda lies at the foot of two eminences, in such a
manner as to present the appearance of an ass with panniers.
On this account Apollonius Malacus ridicules the city, and
also because it abounds with scorpions; he says, it was an
ass, with panniers full of scorpions.
This city and Mylasa, and the whole mountainous tract between them, swarm with these reptiles.
The inhabitants of Alabanda are addicted to luxury and
debauchery. It contains a great number of singing girls.
Natives of Alabanda, distinguished persons, were two orators, brothers, Menecles, whom we mentioned a little above,
and Hierocles, Apollonius, and Molo; the two latter afterwards went to Rhodes.
Among the various accounts which are circulated respecting the Carians, the most generally received is that the
Carians, then called Leleges, were governed by Minos, and
occupied the islands. Then removing to the continent, they
obtained possession of a large tract of sea-coast and of the
interior, by driving out the former occupiers, who were, for
the most part, Leleges and Pelasgi. The Greeks again,
Ionians and Dorians, deprived the Carians of a portion of the
As proofs of their eager pursuit of war, the handles of
shields, badges, and crests, all of which are called Carian, are
alleged. Anacreon says,
“‘Come, grasp the well-made Caric handles;’”
“‘Shaking a Carian crest.’”
But when Homer uses these expressions, ‘Masthles
commanded the Carians, who speak a barbarous language,’60
it does not appear why, when he was acquainted with so
many barbarous nations, he mentions the Carians alone as
using a barbarous language, but does not call any people Barbarians. Nor is Thucydides right, who says that none were
called Barbarians, because as yet the Greeks were not distinguished by any one name as opposed to some other. But
Homer himself refutes this position that the Greeks were not
distinguished by this name:
“‘A man whose fame has spread through Greece and Argos;’61
and in another place—
“‘But if you wish to go through Hellas and the middle of Argos.’62
But if there was no such term as Barbarian, how could he
properly speak of people as Barbarophonoi (i. e. speaking a
Neither is Thucydides nor Apollonius the grammarian
right, because the Greeks, and particularly the Ionians, applied to the Carians a common term in a peculiar and vituperative sense, in consequence of their hatred of them for their
animosity and continual hostile incursions. Under these circumstances he might call them Barbarians. But we ask, why
does he call them Barbarophonoi, but not once Barbarians?
Because, replies Apollonius, the plural number does not fall in
with the metre; this is the reason why Homer does not call
them Barbarians. Admitting then that the genitive case
) does not fall in with the measure of the verse, the
nominative case (βάοͅβαοͅοι
) does not differ from that of Dardani (δάοͅδανοι
“‘Trojans, Lycians, and Dardani;’”
and of the same kind is the word Troïi63
in this verse,
“‘Like the Troïi horses’ (τοͅώιοι ἵπποι
Nor is the reason to be found in the alleged excessive harshness of the Carian language, for it is not extremely harsh;
and besides, according to Philippus, the author of a history of
Caria, their language contains a very large mixture of Greek
I suppose that the word ‘barbarian’ was at first invented to
designate a mode of pronunciation which was embarrassed,
harsh, and rough; as we use the words battarizein, traulizein, psellizein,64
to express the same thing. For we are naturally very much disposed to denote certain sounds by names
expressive of those sounds, and characteristic of their nature;
and hence invented terms abound, expressive of the sounds
which they designate, as kelaryzein, clange, psophos, boe,
most of which words are at present used in an appropriate sense.
As those who pronounce their words with a thick enunciation are called Barbarians, so foreigners, I mean those who
were not Greeks, were observed to pronounce their words in
this manner. The term Barbarians was therefore applied
peculiarly to these people, at first by way of reproach, as
having a thick and harsh enunciation; afterwards the term
was used improperly, and applied as a common gentile term
in contradistinction to the Greeks. For after a long intimacy
and intercourse had subsisted with the Barbarians, it no
longer appeared that this peculiarity arose from any thickness of enunciation, or a natural defect in the organs of the
voice, but from the peculiarities of their languages.
But there was in our language a bad and what might be
called a barbarous utterance, as when any person speaking
Greek should not pronounce it correctly, but should pronounce
the words like the Barbarians, who, when beginning to learn
the Greek language, are not able to pronounce it perfectly,
as neither are we able to pronounce perfectly their languages.
This was peculiarly the case with the Carians. For other
nations had not much intercourse with the Greeks, nor were
disposed to adopt the Grecian manner of life, nor to learn our
language, with the exception of persons who by accident
and singly had associated with a few Greeks; but the Carians
were dispersed over the whole of Greece, as mercenary soldiers. Then the barbarous pronunciation was frequently met
with among them, from their military expeditions into Greece;
and afterwards it spread much more, from the time that they
occupied the islands together with the Greeks: not even when
driven thence into Asia, could they live apart from Greeks,
when the Ionians and Dorians arrived there.
Hence arose the expression, ‘to barbarize,’ for we are accustomed to apply this term to those whose pronunciation of
the Greek language is vicious, and not to those who pronounce it like the Carians.
We are then to understand the expressions, ‘barbarous
speaking’ and ‘barbarous speakers,’ of persons whose pronunciation of the Greek language is faulty. The word ‘to
barbarize’ was formed after the word ‘to Carize,’ and transferred into the books which teach the Greek language; thus
also the word ‘to solœcize’ was formed, derived either from
Soli or some other source.
Artemidorus says that the journey from Physcus, on
the coast opposite to Rhodes, towards Ephesus, as far as Lagina is 850 stadia; thence to Alabanda 250 stadia; to Tralles
160. About halfway on the road to Tralles the Mæander is
crossed, and here are the boundaries of Caria. The whole
number of stadia from Physcus to the Mæander, along the
road to Ephesus, is 1180 stadia. Again, along the same road,
from the Mæander of Ionia to Tralles 80 stadia, to Magnesia
140 stadia, to Ephesus 120, to Smyrna 320, to Phocæa and the
boundaries of Ionia, less than 200 stadia; so that the length of
Ionia in a straight line would be, according to Artemidorus, a
little more than 800 stadia.
But as there is a public frequented road by which all travellers pass on their way from Ephesus to the east, Artemidorus thus describes it. [From Ephesus] to Carura, the
boundary of Caria towards Phrygia, through Magnesia and
Tralles, Nysa, Antioch, is a journey of 740 stadia. From
Carura, the first town in Phrygia, through Laodiceia, Apameia,
Metropolis, and Chelidoniæ,66
to Holmi, the beginning of the
Paroreius, a country lying at the foot of the mountains, about
920 stadia; to Tyriæum,67
the termination towards Lycaonia
of the Paroreius,68
is little more than
500 stadia. Next is Lycaonia as far as Coropassus,70
Laodiceia in the Catacecaumene, 840 stadia; from Coropassus
in Lycaonia to Garsaüra,71
a small city of Cappadocia, situated
on its borders, 120 stadia; thence to Mazaca,72
of the Cappadocians, through Soandus and Sadacora, 680
stadia; thence to the Euphrates, as far as Tomisa, a stronghold in Sophene, through Herphæ,73
a small town, 1440 stadia.
The places in a straight line with these, as far as India, are
described in the same manner by Artemidorus and Eratosthenes. Polybius says, that with respect to those places we
ought chiefly to depend upon Artemidorus. He begins from
Samosata in Commagene, which is situated at the passage,
and the Zeugma of the Euphrates, to Samosata across the
Taurus, from the mountains of Cappadocia about Tomisa, he
says is a distance of 450 stadia.