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[16] Venus aurea: Hom.'s χρυσέη Ἀφροδίτη (Il. 3. 64. Od. 8. 337).

[18] Hominum rerumque 12. 839. ‘Hominum divomque,’ the old read reading retained by Heins. and Heyne, is found in three of Ribbeck's cursives. The use of the abstract ‘potestas’ in a concrete sense is natural in poetry, especially as applied to a god: comp. Milton's “Thrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues, powers.” Cicero however (Phil. 2. 21) has “tum contra te dedit arma hic ords consulibus reliquisque imperiis et potettatibus” (comp. Tuse. 1. 30), and the post-Augustan writers seem to employ ‘potestas’ directly in the sense of as officer or magistrate: Juv. 10. 100, “Fidenarum Gabiorumque esse potestas” (where see Mayor): Suet. Claud. 23, “iurisdictionem potestatibus per provincias demandare.” So ἀρχή in Greek.

[19] ‘Aliud . . . inplorare:’ so 7. 311 “dubitem haud equidem inplorar quod usquam est.

[20] For ‘insultent’ a few MSS. (none of Ribbeck's) read ‘insultant:’ but such a construction could not be supported by such passages as E. 4. 52 (note). The words ‘feratur . . . tumidusque’ are inserted in Med. by a later hand, the sentence being originally written ‘Turnusque secundo,’ &c. Ribbeck accordingly puts them in brackets. remarking that Turnus in Book 9 has fought on foot, not on horseback back or from a chariot. But Turnus had appeared on horseback in his first attack on the camp, 9. 49 (comp. 9. 269, which shows that his appearance had made an impression on the Trojans), so that a more scrupulous narrator than Venus might have used the expression before us. The pl. ‘equis,’ however, would suggest a chariot, such as Turnus has later, v. 440 below, 12. 326, &c. But in any case Virg.'s want of memory or Venus' habit of exaggeration would account sufficiently for the words. The eye of a transcriber would easily pass from ‘Turnusque’ to ‘tumidusque.’ ‘Feratur per medios:’ so 12.477, “medios Iuturna per hostis Fertur equis.

[21] Tumidus as 9. 596, though possibly here there may be a metaphor from a river. ‘Secundo Marte’ like “Iunone secunda” 4. 45, where, as here, there is probably an allusion to a fair gale speeding motion. With the whole comp. Il. 9. 237, Ἕκτωρ δὲ μέγα σθένεϊ βλεμεαίνων Μαίνετ αι ἐκπάγλως, πίσυνος Διΐ.

[22] In Med. ‘clausa’ is altered from ‘claustra,’ which Wakef. adopted and combined with a reading of the Jesus MS. ‘;non moenia,’ thus producing ‘non claustra tegunt, non moenia Teucros:’ “non male,” says Ribbeck. But ‘clausa’ is really emphatic; ‘closed though they be.’ Venus conveniently ignores the fact that the opening of the gates was the thing which had proved fatal to the Trojans. “Clauso fidere vallo” Lucan 6. 12.

[23] Ipsis as G. 4. 75, “circa regem atque ipsa ad praetoria:” comp. A. 2. 469. ‘Proelia miscentLucr. 4.1013, G. 2. 282.

[24] ‘Agger moerorum,’ as v. 144 and 11. 382 (where this line is nearly repeated), means ‘the pile of the wall:’ ‘agger’ having a general sense, as in 5. 273 (note) and 6. 830. For the special sense of the word see Dict. A. ‘Murorum’ is the reading of the bulk of Ribbeck's MSS., ‘moerorum’ being only found in Pal. (originally) and in two cursives from corrections: but Serv. attests ‘moerorum,’ and the archaic form is sufficiently likely to have been altered. Mr. Long considers that the plurals ‘aggeribus’ and ‘fossas’ imply ‘every part of the earthworks and ofthe ditch.’ ‘Fossas’ Pal. and Gud., supported by Serv., ‘fossae’ Med., Rom. It might be urged that ‘fossas’ was due to a transcriber who wished to accommodate ‘inundant’ to ‘miscent:’ but on the whole Ribbeck seems right in preferring the former, as the latter would naturally be introduced from 11. 382, whereas Virg. is fond of repeating his lines with a change.

[25] ‘Is Troy always to be besieged?’

[26] Hostis of the prominent figuro Turnus, as contrasted with ‘exercitus’ in the next line. ‘Imminet’ as in Hor. 1 Od. 12. 53, “Parthos Latio imminentis.

[27] Nascentis emphatic, implying that this was the cruellest siege of all. The camp is called ‘Troia’ as below, v. 74, where Juno takes the phrase ‘nascens Troia’ out of Venus' mouth. See Heyne, Exc. 3 to Book 7.

[28] For the embassy to Diomede see 8. 9. ‘Aetoli’ of Arpi, as founded by the Aetolian Diomede: comp. 11. 428. Med., Gud., and another of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘surget:’ conversely in 6. 762 Med. has ‘surgit’ wrongly for ‘surget.’ ‘Surgit,’ like ‘imminet,’ ‘restant,’ ‘demoror,’ itself expresses the requisite notion of futurity. Comp. “bella Tyro surgentia” 4. 43.

[29] Mea volnera, Il. 5. 336. ‘Mea’ emphatic: ‘my wounding, too, is not yet done with.’ ‘Resto’ here as often in the meaning of ‘to remain behind for completion:’ comp. Ov. F. 2. 827, “restabant ultima:” M. 10. 372, “ubi plaga novissima restat:” ib. 14. 439, “saevi restare pericula ponti:” Pers. 3. 97, “iam pridem hunc sepeli: tu restas:” see also Lucr. 5.227.

[30] Mortalia arma 1. 592, Comp. 12. 797, “mortalin' decuit violari volnere divom:” and G. 3. 319 note. Venus says that she must keep the arms of mortals waiting for her: i. e. that the fighting will not be over until she is wounded, almost as if she owed an apology for the delay. ‘Demoror’ cannot mean, as Serv. says, ‘to look for’ or ‘to sustain,’ but only ‘to keep waiting:’ comp. 2. 648 “annos demoror,” 3. 481 “demoror austros,” 11. 175 “Teucros demoror armis.

[31] Pax in the same sense as 3. 370, “pacem divom:” see Forc. ‘Numinc’ in the sense of ‘will,’ as 1. 133., 2. 123, 777, &c. ‘Tuo’ probably to be supplied to ‘numine’ from ‘tua.

[32] Luant peccata like “luis commissaG. 4. 454. See Forc. ‘Neque iuveris’ like “nec respexerisE. 8. 102.

[33] Iuvare auxilio like “levare auxilio” 2. 452. ‘Responsag. 3. 491., 9. 134. ‘Secuti,’ 3. 382 “data fata secutus.” ‘Secuti’ constructed with ‘Italiam petiere.

[34] For the commands of the gods see 1. 205., 3. 183, 382., 4. 266, &c.; for those of the Manes, that of Hector 2. 295, of Creusa 2. 781, of Anchises 5. 729., 6. 757 foll.

[35] Vertere as in 1. 237. One of Ribbeck's cursives has ‘flectere,’ and Rom. has ‘iura’ for ‘iussa.’ ‘Condere,’ to put together or compose, as in the phrase “carmen condere” (comp. E. 10. 50), Fate being regarded as a book. Here, as in 1. 257, 262, Jupiter's commands are identified with those of the Fates.

[36] Repetam 3. 436. ‘Exustas classis’ 5. 606 foll. Only four ships were really burnt (5. 699), but she exaggerates similarly 5. 794, “classe amissa.” ‘Erycino in litore’ 1. 570., 5. 759.

[37] Aeolus is “tempestatum potens” 1. 84, as here he is ‘tempestatum rex.’ For the facts alluded to here see 1. 50 foll.

[38] Iris was sent to cause the burning of the fleet (5. 606 foll.), and to incite Turnus to attack the Trojan camp (9. 2 foll.). ‘Actam nubibus’ 9. 18 note.

39, 40, 41.] ‘Manis’ 7. 324 foll. ‘Haec sors rerum,’ ‘this province or portion of the universe:’ Virg. is probably thinking of the phrase “sortiri provinciam” used of a Roman magistrate obtaining his province by lot, and applying it to the threefold division of the universe among the sons of Saturn (1. 139 note), to which he is alluding. Livy 22. 35., 30. 40 has “sors urbana” for ‘the city department:’ comp. ib. 1. 35, where “sortem bonorum” means ‘a share of property.’ “Tertiae sortis loca” of the infernal regions Sen. H. F. 609, 833. ‘Rerum’ as 9. 131, “rerum pars altera adempta est.” ‘Movet’ 7. 312. ‘Superis’ generally, those who live above, opposed to ‘Manis:’ comp. 6. 568, and for the thought 7. 557, 571. ‘Superis inmissa’ like “inmissae silvis” G. 2. 312. It is better to supply ‘est’ after ‘inmissa’ than after ‘bacchata.’ ‘Bacchata per urbes’ 4. 300, 666.

[42] Super G. 4. 559. ‘Inperio:’ she reminds Jupiter of his promise indirectly, as directly in 1. 234 foll. ‘Speravimus ista,’ ‘we hoped for this at your hand:’ Wagn. Q. V. 19. 2.

[43] “Dum Fortuna fuit” 3. 16. About ‘Fortuna’ as the good fortune of a city or race see note on G. 4. 209.

[44] Nulla regio: Serv. comp. 1. 233, “quibus, tot funera passis, Totus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis.” With ‘det’ comp. 5. 798, “si concessa peto, si dant ea moenia Pareae.

[45] The present part. ‘fumantia’ gives vividness: comp. Eur. Troades 8, πόλει νῦν καπνοῦται (Cerda), and ib. 585. See also 3. 3 note.

[46] Exscidia 2. 643. ‘Dimittere incolumem’ like “tutos dimittam” 1. 571.

[47] Liceat superesse nepotem = “liceat mihi superesse nepotem.” Heineius wished to read ‘nepoti,’ the sense of which would be different, and not so good.

[48] Sane concessive, as in Cic. Acad. Prior. 2. 32. 105 (Forc.) “haec si vobis non probamus sint falsa sane: invidiosa certe non sunt.” For ‘sane’ Rom. and some others, including one of Ribbeck's cursives, have ‘procul:’ ‘sane’ has the authority of Serv., and seems less likely to have been interpolated. For ‘in undis’ Pal. corrected, Gud., and some others have ‘in eris,’ which might stand: comp. 1. 331, “quibus orbis in oris Iactemur.” But ‘undis’ was the original reading of Pal., and is found as a variant in Gud., and it seems more likely that ‘oris’ may have been introduced from 1. l. c., and perhaps G. 3. 225. She characteristically exaggerates Aeneas' journey up the Tiber into a hazardous voyage, the issue of which is as yet unknown.

[49] Comp. 4. 653; “quem cursum dederat Fortuna peregi,” and also 5. 22, 23., 11. 128. Pal. has ‘quacumque,’ which might be supported from 2. 388.

[50] Tegere 12. 148. Here it is explained by what follows vv. 51 foll. ‘Dirae pugnae’ like “dirum bellum” 11. 217: suggested, perhaps, by μάχης ἄπο δακρυοέσσης, Il. 16. 436: a passage generally similar to this. Rom. has ‘durae:’ see 7. 807., 9. 726., 10. 146. ‘Subducere’ = ὑπεκφέρειν: Il. 5. 318.,, 11. 163.

[51] Amathus in Cyprus, Hdt. 5. 104. The temple of Venus there is mentioned by Tac. A. 3. 62 (Forb.). For that in Cythera see Hdt. 1. 105. Comp. 1. 680. Rom. and Gud. have ‘celsa mihi Paphus (or Paphos) atque alta Cythera,’ ‘alta’ being marked in Gud. for omission, and Pal. has ‘alta’ added in the margin: which shows that the error may have arisen from some one's recollection of ‘alta Cythera’ below, v. 86. Wagn. reads from the ‘expositus Palatinus codex’ of Pierius and Menag. prim. ‘est celsa Paphus atque alta Cythera,’ in which the juxtaposition of ‘celsa’ with ‘alta’ would be weak.

[52] The form in 1. 681 is ‘Idalium.’ It is better to take ‘Idaliae’ as the gen. sing. from ‘Idalia’ (1. 692 “altos Idaliae lucos”) than as the nom. plur. from the adj. ‘Idalius’ (5. 76 “Veneri Idaliae”), since ‘domus,’ which can mean temple in the sing. (6. 53, 81), does not seem to be used in this sense in the plur. ‘Inglorius’ 11. 693., 12. 397, G. 2. 486. “Positis bellis” 1. 291.

[53] The Verona fragment has ‘exiget,’ with some support from two of Ribbeck's cursives. ‘Exigat aevumLucr. 4.1235. Comp. 7. 776, “ignobilis aevum Exiget.” With ‘magna dicione’ comp. “omni dicione” 1. 236, which is still stronger. “Dicione premebat” 7. 737.

[54] Inde, i. e. from Ascanius. Forb. comp. 1. 21, “Progeniem sed enim Troiano a sanguine duci Audierat . . . Hinc populum late regem belloque potentem Venturum.” ‘Urbibus Tyriis’ a more general, perhaps a contemptuous expression for Carthage.

[55] Pestis ( = λοιγός Il. 15. 736) as in 9. 328, “sed non augurio potuit depellere pestem:” see also Livy 25. 19.

[56] With the expression of this and the preceding line generally comp. 2. 664, 665., 3. 282, 283.

[57] Comp. Livy 21. 30, “quid per octo menses periculi, quid laboris, exhaustum esse?” 33. 39, “Romanos per tot annos terra marique tanta pericula ac labores exhausisse.” “Bella exhausta” 4. 14. “Pericula terrae” 6. 84 note.

[58] Recidiva 4. 344, note. Rom. has ‘rediviva.’ The present tense, ‘quaerunt,’ follows the past ‘exhausta’ (= ‘quae exhauserunt’), as in E. 7. 6, G. 4. 560., 6. 171, where see notes. The search is supposed to be still going on. For the thought comp. generally 5. 628.

[59] Satius E. 2. 14. The use of ‘insidere’ with the acc. does not seem to have been usual before the Augustan and postAugustan writers (see Forc.). Rom. has ‘cineres patrios,’ Pal. and Gud. ‘patriae cineres,’ a curious coincidence in violating the metre, which may teach us not to overrate the authority even of the best MSS.

[60] Quo Troia fuit, 3. 11 “et campos ubi Troia fuit.Xanthus and Simois are the objects of Trojan patriotism and the symbols of Trojan fortune. Comp. 3. 497., 5. 634., 6. 88 note.

[61] Revolvere here means ‘to roll a second time,’ not as in 9. 391, ‘to roll back or unweave.’ Comp. 2. 101, “Sed quid ego haec autem nequiquam ingrata revolvo?” ‘Volvere casus’ has already been used of the sufferings of Aeneas, 1. 9 (note). Forb. comp. Sil. 1. 115, “Rhoeteaque fata revolvam.”

[62-95] ‘Juno asks Venus why she will reopen an old quarrel to cast in the teeth of the gods the consequences of Aeneas' mistakes and the crimes of the Trojans? She claims the same right which Venus had exercised, of doing something to aid her favourites.’

[62, 63] Regia Iuno 1. 443. ‘Acta furore:’ comp. 5. 659. With ‘alta silentia,’ which well expresses Virg.'s conception of Juno's character, comp. 1. 26, “manet alta mente repostum Iudicium Paridis,” and 12. 801, “Nec te tantus edat tacitam dolor.” In Homer it is Athene, not Hera, who smothers her anger in silence. Il. 4. 22 foll., 8. 459 foll.

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