Infecta venenis instead of “cincta serpentibus veneno infectis,” because the venomous serpents on her head were part of herself, vv. 346, 450. Comp. Claud. in Rufin. 1. 66, “torsos serpentum erexit hiatus, Noxiaque effudit concusso crine venena.” ‘Gorgoneis’ is properly an epithet of the serpents, like those of Medusa.
 Tyranni: v. 266 above.
 Tacitum has been interpreted either as in a retired part of the house and so silent, or as lonely, because Amata was sitting apart to indulge her melancholy. It may however have reference to the silence of night. Comp. v. 413, where Allecto visits Turnus at midnight. ‘Obsedit’ implies hostility. ‘Limen’ is the threshold of Amata's room; and as the rooms were very small there is no incongruity in the idea of the Fury reaching Amata where she was lying without passing the threshold. For the threshold as the seat of the Furies comp. 4. 473., 6. 563.
 Super as in v. 358 below, 1. 750 &c.
 The sense of ‘coquebant’ is fixed by ‘ardentem’ as being nearly i. q. “inflammabant,” perhaps with a further notion of agitation, as in the simile vv. 462 foll. The sense therefore is not the same as πέσσειν χόλον, to digest, smother one's anger. Virg. probably thought of the well-known lines of Ennius (A. 10. fr. 5), “O Tite, si quid ego adiuero curamve levasso Quae nunc te coquit et versat in pectore fixa, Ecquid erit praemi?”
 ‘Coniicere’ with dat. below v. 456. “Caeruleos inplexae crinibus anguis” G. 4. 482: see on G. 1. 236. The identity of the hair and the serpents is shown here partly by the epithet ‘caeruleus,’ partly by the expression ‘unum de crinibus anguem’ instead of “unum de anguibus” or “de crinibus.” Gossrau comp. Ov. M. 4. 495, where the description of the agency of the Fury upon Ino and Athamas is throughout modelled on Virg., though Ovid's luxuriant fancy contrasts significantly with Virg.'s self-restraint.
 Furibunda (Amata) with ‘monstro.’ ‘Monstro’ may refer specifically to the serpent or generally to the whole agency, like “quo motu” G. 1. 329 note. ‘Domum permisceat’ like “versare domos” above v. 336. “Miscentur moenia luctu,” “miscetur domus interior gemitu miseroque tumultu” 2. 298, 486.
 Levia gives the reason of ‘volvitur attactu nullo,’ as ‘furentem’ does of ‘fallit:’ and throughout the passage there is an effort of ingenuity to sustain the physical probability. The serpent takes the form of the serpentine “torquis” and ‘taenia,’ and it infuses its venom by the breath, not with the tooth. “Inter pateras et levia pocula serpens” 5. 91. Rom. and some of Pierius' MSS. have ‘levia corpora.’ ‘Devia’ is rather an ingenious variety in one MS., the Rottendorph. tert.
 ‘Attactus,’ a very rare word, found only in the abl. sing. Freund. ‘Fallit,’ passes unnoticed by her. ‘Fallit,’ though governing ‘furentem,’ is to be joined with ‘inspirans,’ ἔλαθεν εἰσπνέων, as Heyne suggests. Gossrau comp. Lucan. 6. 64, “Prima quidem surgens operum structura fefellit Pompeium.” With the general character of the passage we may comp. 1. 688, “Occultum inspires ignem fallasque veneno.”
 Vipeream animam, not, a spirit like that of a serpent, but its poisonous breath. “Inspirantque gravis animas” Ov. l. c., who adds characteristically “nec volnera membris Ulla ferunt: mens est quae diros sentiat ictus.” ‘Collo’ probably a local abl. (see on v. 140 above), rather than, as in 1. 654, a dative.
 Tortile aurum, i. q. “torquis.” Heyne remarks that “torques” in the form of serpents often appear in ancient art. The ‘taenia’ was the end of the ribbon forming the ‘vitta,’ which hung down in serpentine undulations. ‘Ingens coluber’ is the subject.
 Prima pertemptat &c. ‘is but beginning to penetrate,’ ‘prima’ being in sense adverbial. It is difficult to say whether ‘udo veneno’ is to be taken as a material abl. with ‘lues,’ or as an abl. of the mode or form with ‘sublapsa’ or ‘pertemptat.’ ‘Udo’ is another attempt to make the thing physically credible, the moist breath of the serpent being supposed to penetrate her frame.
 Med. and originally Gud. omit ‘est.’
 Natae Med. &c., ‘nata’ Rom., Gud. corrected, and some others, including the Balliol MS. Pal. and the Vatican and Verona fragments are wanting. ‘Nata’ is the common reading. Wagn. restored ‘natae,’ and later editors have followed him. But ‘natae Phrygiisque hymenaeis’ for “natae Phrygisque hymenaeis” would be a little harsh, though not unexampled; and ‘natae’ may have arisen from ‘gnatae’ just below. ‘Nata’ would point to the personal peril of her daughter, ‘Phrygiis hymenaeis’ to the impolicy of a foreign alliance, both which motives are urged in Amata's speech. One or two MSS. have “natae Turnique hymenaeis” from v. 398 (comp. v. 344 above), which may further account for ‘natae,’ though of course it might be used to justify that reading.
 ‘Exsulibus:’ the pl. is contemptuous, and points the general objection to the alliance. ‘Datur’ closely with ‘ducenda.’ “Tibiducituruxor” E.8.29. Pier. says that some old MSS. have “Exsulibus ducenda datur Lavinia Teucris,” which is the usual quantity. See however 1. 255, 270 &c.
 She looks upon Aeneas as a rover, who has no intention of settling, and treats the marriage as an abduction, like those at the beginning of Hdt. 1. ‘Primo aquilone,’ with the first fair wind. She expects him to be going southward, though it is perhaps better not to press the word.
 ‘At non’ Rom., Gud., ‘an non’ Med., which Ribbeck adopts. Serv. recognizes both. The same expression occurs 9. 144, where there is the same variety of reading, though the authority for ‘at non’ there is greater. Those who adopt ‘at non’ make the sentence here an ironical affirmation, there an interrogation: yet the two cases are obviously parallel. On the whole the interrogation seems best in both places, though it is not easy to decide. There is a passage in the Batrachomyomachia vv. 78 foll. which might be pleaded for making the sentence here affirmative: but there the mouse seems to say seriously that his passage on the frog's back is not so safe and pleasant as Europa's on the back of the bull. For ‘at’ in questions see Hand Turs. vol. 1. p. 438. Virg. thought of Il. 3. 46 foll., where τοιόσδε ἐών answers to ‘sic’ here, though the sense is different. ‘Penetrat’ has been supposed to be a contracted form of “penetravit” (see on 5. 57), but it is merely the historic present. ‘Penetrat’ implies difficulty, which suits Amata's feelings, as she wishes to show the difference of the habits of the roving Phrygian and those of the peaceful Latin: it may also have a notion of secrecy and stealth, G. 2. 504. “Phrygius pastor:” comp. Hor. 1 Od. 15. 1. Forb. comp. Bion 2. 10, ἅρπασε τὰν Ἑλέναν ποθ᾽ ὁ βουκόλος.
 “Ledaeam Hermionen” 3. 328. Here the epithet may be meant to show that the bride was a stranger to the bridegroom, and so to contrast with ‘Troianus.’
 Quid tua sancta fides &c. The sense is obvious, ‘what has become of your solemn pledge’ &c., though it is difficult to say what is the exact ellipse. For similar, if not wholly parallel uses comp. 10. 672, G. 3. 258, 264. “Sed quid ais? quid nunc virgo? nempe apud te 'st?” Plaut. Trin. 1. 2. 156. ‘Sancta’ may be a participle, “quam sanxisti,” as if it were “pacta fides.” ‘Antiqua,’ an appeal to his past and so habitual conduct, as in 5. 688. One MS. has ‘iura.’
 Consanguineo, the kinsman, that is, of Amata, who was the sister of Turnus's mother Venilia (10. 76), according to a legend cited by Victor, Orig. Gent. Rom. 13, on the authority of Piso, and doubtless adopted by Virg. See Heyne Excursus 7 on this book. Virg. however may have meant to represent Turnus as the kinsman of Latinus through Pilumnus (10. 76, 619), who seems to have been connected with Saturn. “Data dextera” 4. 307. Latinus had doubtless promised Lavinia to Turnus before the portents mentioned vv. 58 foll.
 Latinis seems better taken with Forb. “in commodum Latinorum” (Wagn. comp. 11. 472, “generumque adsciverit urbi”) than with Peerlkamp “a Latinis.” In either case we may comp. the pl. ‘Teucris’ v. 359, and note the intended contrast between ‘externa’ and ‘Latinis’ as if the heir of a Latin throne ought not to be a stranger.
[371, 372] Acrisius, the father of Danae (v. 410), was the fourth king of Argos, Inachus being the first. “Si prima repetens ab origine pergam” 1. 372. ‘Mediaeque Mycenae,’ the heart of Mycenae: he is a thorough Mycenian. “Non Maurus erat. . . mediis sed natus Athenis” Juv. 3. 80. Virg. may have thought of Od. 1. 344, καθ᾽ Ἑλλάδα καὶ μέσον Ἄργος. From ‘patres’ of course we must supply the notion of a mother-city.
[373-405] ‘Failing to persuade Latinus, the queen becomes furious, and carries her daughter into the woods in a feigned religious frenzy, bidding the Latian women join her in an orgie.’