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[212] Ilioneus (“maxumus Ilioneus”) is the chief speaker before Dido 1. 521 foll., and his speech here is in many points an exact counterpart of his speech there. ‘Voce secutus’ 1. 406. With ‘dicta voce secutus’ comp. “Teucri clamore sequuntur” 9. 636 note.

[213] “Egregium Veneris genus” below v. 556, where however the words are ironical. ‘Fluctibus acti’ 1. 333.

[214] Subegit with inf. 3. 257, G. 4. 85. ‘Vestris’ not for “tuis,” but referring to the Latin nation. ‘Tectis’ was read before Heins.: comp. 1. 627.

[215] This is an answer to “errore viae” v. 199, as the line before is to “tempestatibus acti.” ‘We have not strayed from our course by mistaking the stars or the landmarks’—the two things by which they steered. Comp. 5. 25. ‘Sidus’ however might conceivably stand for a storm (stormy season): see 11. 259. For ‘regione viae’ see on 2. 737. ‘Fallere regione viae’ (to deceive in or in respect of the course) occurs again 9. 385, where see note.

[216] Contrast 1. 377, “Forte sua Libycis tempestas adpulit oris.” ‘Omnes’ expresses the national character of the movement. Comp. 3. 129, &c. ‘Urbem adferimur’ like “advehitur Teucros” 8. 136.

[218] Extremo veniens Olympo is well explained by Gossrau: “Sol si vel ab extremo caelo veniebat, non videbat maius regnum: itaque maxumum erat in omni terrorum orbe.” If there is any special reference in ‘extremo,’ it must be to the great kingdoms of the East. Comp. generally Hor. Carm. Saec. 9 foll. For the legendary greatness of the Trojan empire comp. 2. 556. Hom. Il. 24, 543 foll. is more moderate.

[219] Ab Iove principium was probably suggested to Virg.'s ear by Aratus's Ἐκ Διὸς ἀρχώμεσθα (Phaen. 1): comp. ib. 5, τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἔσμεν, and see note on E. 3. 60. Δάρδανον ἂρ πρῶτον τέκετο νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς, says Aeneas to Achilles, Il. 20. 215.

[220] Avo, generally an ancestor. Our king Aeneas himself, who sent us hither, is descended from Jove, i. e. more immediately through Venus. ‘Suprema’ is not i. q. “ultimus” v. 49, but means ‘most exalted,’ as in 10. 350, “Boreae de gente suprema.” Comp. Plaut. Most. 5. 2. 20,quod faciunt summis nati generibus.” ‘Supremus’ is a title of Jove, like ὕψιστος, “summus:” see Forc. s. v. ‘Supremus.’ So probably Enn. A. 184, “Nomine Burrus, uti memorant, a stirpe supremo,” which Virg. perhaps imitated. “Genus ab Iove summo” 6. 123. “De gente” 5. 373.

[221] Ad limina denotes the humility of supplicants. Comp. 6. 113, with many other instances.

[222] For the imagery comp. 5. 693 foll.

[223] Quibus fatis, what were the fortunes (literally the destinies) of the struggle. “Acti fatis” 1. 32.

[224] Europae atque Asiae explains ‘uterque orbis,’ the two divisions of the world, Europe and Asia. This view of the Trojan war as a struggle between Europe and Asia is quite un-Homeric, and arose in Greece after the Persian war. See Hdt. 1, the earlier chapters. With this image comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 2. 7, “Graecia Barbariae lento collisa duello.

[225] Tellus extrema refuso Oceano, the farthest land against which Ocean beats, or, from which Ocean is beaten back:—‘refuso Oceano’ being taken as an ablative of quality or attributive ablative with ‘tellus.’ The Ocean, as in Hom., is supposed to encircle the earth, the extremity of which accordingly repels it. For ‘refuso’ see note on G. 2. 163, “Iulia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso.” Virg. had in his mind Britain or Thule, though of course he could not put those names into the mouth of Ilioneus. ‘Submovet’ and ‘dirimit,’ separate from the rest of the world: comp. with Cerda, “penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos” E. 1. 67; Prop. 3. 1. 17, “et si qua extremis tellus se subtrahit oris.” Wagn. and Forb. think that the Ocean is said to be ‘refusus,’ “quatenus ambiens insulam (Britain or Thule) in semet refundi videtur;” and so Heyne, after Turnebus, interprets the expression like ἀψόρ᾽ῥοος Ὠκέανος in Hom. (Il. 18. 399 &c.), the only difference being that this last view supposes the Ocean to encircle the earth. But these interpretations will not agree with the clearly parallel passage G. 2. 163.

[226] There is no elision after ‘Oceano,’ the word being treated as Greek. Comp. 3. 74, G. 1. 437. For the use of the torrid zone as a type of remoteness comp. 6. 796 foll. The sentiment is repeated from 1. 565 foll. For the zones comp. G. 1. 233 foll. ‘Plagae’ of the zones Ov. M. 1. 48. Virg. may possibly have thought of Lucr. 5.481,Maxuma qua nunc se ponti plaga caerula tendit.

[228] Diluvio carries on the metaphor of ‘tempestas;’ but we must take it of a swollen river or torrent, not of rain, which would be unpoetical. Comp. Hor. 4 Od. 14. 25, “Aufidussaevit horrendamque cultis Diluviem meditatur agris.” ‘Campos’ renders such a metaphor appropriate. Some in Serv.'s time actually took ‘diluvio ex illo’ with the preceding sentence, “ex quo mundus est constitutus, hoc est, ex quo Chaos esse desiit.” ‘Per aequora vecti’ 1. 376.

[230] Wagn. comp. the phrase “aqua et igni interdicere.” The sense of the passage apparently requires ‘innocuum’ to be taken actively, ‘where we shall hurt no one,’ rather than passively, ‘where no one will hurt us,’ as Serv. and others prefer (as in 10. 302); but Virg. may have intended both senses. Ilioneus speaks of the shore, as he had already complained 1. 540, “hospitio prohibemur arenae,” referring here probably to the campsettlement on the coast, which he may have thought was the destined city. See generally the passage from Cic. quoted on 1. 540. The lines are almost translated in an excellent couplet in Dean Stanley's Oxford Prize Poem, The Gipsies: “They claim no thrones, they only ask to share The common liberty of earth and air.”

[231] ‘Indecor’ or ‘indecoris’ is a rare word; Virg. however uses it in four other places, 11. 423, 845., 12. 25, 679. ‘Regno’ is probably dat., on the analogy of the construction of “decorus,” which however is once found with an abl., Plaut. Mil. 3. 1. 25. Ilioneus apparently means ‘we shall be no disgrace to your kingdom,’ not ‘we shall not be unworthy of being sovereigns.’ Comp. 1. 572, “Voltis et his mecum pariter considere regnis?” where as elsewhere what Dido offers is what Ilioneus now asks. ‘Nec vestra feretur Fama levis.’ ‘Nor light will be the reputation which our praises will gain you among men.’ A similar promise is made by Aeneas to their benefactress Dido 1. 607 foll. But the clause, taken in connexion with the preceding one, may refer to the glory accruing to the Latins from their union with the Trojans: in which case we may comp. 4. 47 foll., and read ‘tantive’ in the next line.

[232] Levis:neque enim leve nomen Amatae” below v. 581. ‘Abolescet,’ “apud nos.” “Et bene apud memores veteris stat gratia facti?” 4. 539. Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘tantive,’ which most editors prefer.

[233] Comp. 1. 68, “Ilium in Italiam portans.

[234] Fata Aeneae like “Priami fatorum” 2. 554. Aeneas is of course throughout the Aeneid the special care of destiny. Compare the later Roman practice of swearing by the Fortune of the emperor. “Per fortunas” is an adjuration in Cic.'s letters (Att. 5. 11. 1 &c.). ‘Dextram:’ Dido adjures Aeneas “per dextram tuam” 4. 314.

[235] This line is apparently connected closely with ‘potentem,’ powerful whether tried in friendship or in war. ‘Fide,’ probably constructed like ‘bello et armis’ with ‘expertus,’ though it might go with ‘potentem,’ the construction being changed in the next clause. Fabricius thinks Virg. has imitated Cic.'s language to Caesar (ad Fam. 7. 5), “manum tuam istam et victoria et fide praestantem.” Comp. Ilioneus on Aeneas 1. 544.

[236] Multi: the only offer of the kind actually mentioned in the Aeneid is that of Dido. ‘Populigentes’ is probably a mere verbal variation. ‘Ultro,’ that we become petitioners instead of being petitioned.

[237] For ‘vittas’ see note on v. 154 and comp. Il. 1. 14, Στέμματ᾽ ἔχων ἐν χερσί. ‘Praeferimus manibus vittas ac verba’ is a zeugma: we may comp. however Hosea 14. 2, “Take with you words.” Rom. and others have ‘et verba.’ ‘Precantia’ was restored by Heins. from Med., fragm. Vat., Pal. &c. The metrical anomaly (for which see on 6. 33) has led here as there to various readings, Rom. and others having ‘precantum,’ the Codex Bigotianus of the 12th century ‘precantis,’ while a correction in fragm. Vat. gives “vittasque precantia verba.” Stat. Silv. 1. 4. 46 has “Dignarique manus humiles et verba precantum.

[238] Petiere courted our alliance (comp. vv. 54, 55): nearly the same as ‘voluere adiungere’ (comp. v. 57). “Multasque viro se adiungere gentis” 8. 13.

[239] Fata deum may refer specifically to oracles, not generally to decrees of the gods. The difference between the two senses however would not be great to Virg. “Desertas quaerere terras Auguriis agimur divom” 3. 4.

[240] Inperiis egere suis 6. 463. “Hinc Dardanus ortus” 3. 167.

[241] Huc repetit, ‘recalls us hither.’ Cic.(?) De Domo 57, “Vos, qui maxume me repetistis atque revocastis:” Cic. Brut. 16. 63, “Lysias est Atticus, quamquam Timaeus eum quasi Licinia et Mucia lege repetit Syracusas.” This punctuation was introduced by Wagn. in accordance with the suggestion of Heyne, who however in his text adhered to the old punctuation, placing no stop after ‘Dardanus,’ and making ‘Dardanus’ the nom. to ‘repetit.’ The MS. known as Menagianus primus (“optimae notae” Heyne) reads “Hunc repeti iussis ingentibus urget Apollo,” which we might support from 3. 129 With “iussis ingentibus” comp. “praecepta maxuma” 3. 546.

[242] For the Numicius see on v. 150. ‘Vada’ here answers to ‘stagna’ there. ‘Sacra’ need merely be an ordinary epithet of a fountain; see on v. 83 above: Forb. however thinks it may have an anachronistic reference to the sanctity acquired by the river as the place where Aeneas disappeared. Perhaps it is best to make ‘ad Thybrim’ &c. epexegetical of ‘huc,’ making ‘iussisque ingentibus urguet’ a half-parenthetical clause, as if it were “iussis ingentibus urguens.” “Tuscum TiberimG. 1. 499.

[243] Dat. The sovereign whose ambassadors they are is easily understood, and therefore there is no need actually to go back for a nominative to v. 221 or v. 234. ‘Praeterea’ however goes back to ‘misit’ v. 221: comp. 1. 647. Gossrau and Ribbeck think the passage impperfect. ‘Fortunae prioris munera’ = “munera quae prior Fortuna dedit.” Comp. other passages where a thing which had been received as a present from one person is given as a present to another, e. g. 5. 535 foll.

[244] “Munera praeterea Iliacis erepta ruinis” 1. 647, a passage generally parallel. ‘Receptas’ 5. 80., 6. 111.

[245] Aurum for a thing made of gold. “Pleno se proluit auro” 1. 739. Comp. also “pateris libamus et auroG. 2. 192.

[246-248] See on 5. 758, “patribus dat iura vocatis,” and on 1. 293. Perhaps we ought not to separate so sharply as is done on the latter passage between giving laws and giving judgment, functions which in the heroic age would run very much into each other. The sceptre is the peculiar symbol of the judge in Hom., Il. 1. 238., 18. 505. ‘Populis,’ because there were several nations in his empire, 2. 555. ‘Gestamen’ is most appropriate to a thing held with the hand, as a sceptre or shield (3. 286, “clipeum magni gestamen Abantis”); and so “gerere” 1. 657, “sceptrum Ilione quod gesserat olim:” but we have “gerere” applied to a diadem 12. 289. As Ilioneus says ‘sceptrumtiarasvestes,’ he must be supposed to hand over the gifts; and this may account for the somewhat lax way in which the list of objects is appended. This once was borne by Priam when he judged the people; this sceptre, this diadem, these robes, the work of Trojan women. ‘Iliadum labor,’ Hom. ἔργα γυναικῶν. The tiara or mitre (4. 216., 9. 616) is the Eastern head-dress, which Virg., in a somewhat intermittent zeal for accuracy of costume, attributes to the Trojans. He is followed by Juv. 10. 267. Heyne rather ingeniously but needlessly conj. “sceptrum Assaracique tiaras.

[249-285] ‘Latinus is struck with the thought of the approaching fulfilment of the prediction. He welcomes the Trojans, begs that Aeneas will come, and hopes he will prove the destined son-in-law; and dismisses them with a present of horses for themselves and Aeneas.’

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