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[47] It matters little whether ‘ante’ be taken with ‘volans’ or with ‘praecesserat.’ The older commentators are for the former, Forb. for the latter. Ribbeck takes ‘ut ante volans’ together in the sense of “ut qui ante volaret,” which does not seem likely.

[48] Et couples ‘comitatus’ and ‘inprovisus,’ though the two are not properly co-ordinate. See on 2. 86, “comitem et consanguinitate propinquum.” ‘Urbi’ v. 8.

[49] Maculisequus repeated, with a slight change of order, from 5. 565.

[50] ‘Crista rubra’ 12. 89. The abl. qualifies ‘galea.’ Serv. observes “Duo ablativi sunt et duo nominativi, quos metrica ratione discernimus. Namrubra cristalongae sunt ultimae, quia ablativi sunt casus. Sane huiusmodi versus pessimi sunt.” For the thing comp. ῥῆξε δ᾽ ἀφ᾽ ἵππειον λόφον αὐτοῦ: πᾶς δὲ χαμᾶζε Κάππεσεν ἐν κονίῃσι νέον φοίνικι φαεινός Il. 15. 537, “purpurei cristis” v. 163 below.

[51] Mecum with the unfinished sentence ‘qui primus in hostem.’ The omission of the verb seems to be colloquial (comp. E. 9. 1), and accounted for by the eagerness of the speaker. Heyne broke up the line into two questions: but then ‘qui’ would have to be changed into ‘quis,’ the reading of some MSS., as Jahn and Wagn. remark. ‘O iuvenes,’ the reading before Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS.

[52] The throwing of a spear was the Roman mode of declaring war: see Dict. A. ‘Fetiales.’ Med. has ‘intorquens,’ perhaps from 10. 323. ‘Attorquens’ is said to occur nowhere else. Forc. does not give it. Heins. thinks “ad” i. q. “simul:” Wagn. explains it by “valde.” Is it not rather ‘hurling at’?

[53] Principium pugnae is a sort of cogn. acc., in apposition to the action of the verb: comp. 6. 223. So “omen pugnae” 10. 311. “Attuleras domo (diadema), meditatum et cogitatum scelus” Cic. Phil. 2. 34. ‘CampoinfertG. 2. 145.

[54] Clamore Rom., fragm. Vat., Gud. corrected, ‘clamorem’ Med., Pal., Gud. originally. Serv. mentions both. It is difficult to judge, as Wagn. is wrong in saying that Turnus' exclamation could not be called ‘clamor,’ which might stand for any violent exclamation, as in 2. 128. Perhaps however the parallels “Excipiunt plausu” 5. 575, “clamore sequuntur” vv. 466, 636, 10. 799 may decide us for the abl. There is a further question whether ‘sequuntur’ means ‘follow,’ as in the second and fourth of these passages, or ‘back up,’ as in the third. Virg. may have thought here and elsewhere of Od. 15. 162, οἱ δ᾽ ἰΰζοντες ἕποντο.

[55] Inertia i. q. “imbellia,” “ignava,” v. 150, Hor. 3 Od. 5. 36. See on 10. 595.

[56] Dare &c. form a second object to ‘mirantur.’ In prose it would have been “quod non dent,” which would be grammatically reducible to the same thing. ‘Aequo’ combines the two notions of ‘level’ and ‘fair.’ ‘Dare se’ i. q. “credere,” v. 41. “Dat sese fluvio” 11. 565.

[57] Observe the position of ‘viros,’ which really, though not grammatically, qualifies ‘ferre arma.’ ‘Castra fovere’ like “fovit humumG. 3. 420, “fovere larem” G. 4. 43. ‘Turbidus’ in fury, 12. 10. ‘Huc’ because ‘lustrat’ implies motion.

[58] “Lustravere in equis” 5. 578. ‘Aditum quaerit’ v. 507 below.

[59] This simile, as Heyne says, is modelled on Apoll. R. 1. 1243 foll. Virg. may also have thought of Il. 11. 547 foll. (repeated 17. 657 foll.) where a lion attacking a fold is kept at bay all night by men and dogs, as he doubtless did of a similar comParison Od. 6. 130 foll. ‘Pleno’ gives the contrast with the single wolf, and shows what a prize he is anxious to secure. ‘Insidiatus:’ comp. G. 3. 537, “Nec lupus insidias explorat ovilia circum, Nec gregibus nocturnus obambulat.

[60] He has prowled about long: now the delay and the bad weather make him impatient, ‘fremit.’ ‘Caulas’ (= ‘cavulas’) here in its ordinary sense of ‘enclosure:’ the word is used by Lucretius in the peculiar sense of ‘opening.’ ‘Ventos perpessus et imbrisὑόμενος καὶ ἀήμενος Od. l. c.

[61] Super is not i. q. “ultra,” as Serv. says, “plus quam media,” but has the force of the Greek ἐπί, at or during. Forc., who interprets it by “in,” gives no other instance of its use with an abl. of time. Comp. 7. 344, 358. It matters little whether we take ‘sub matribus’ with ‘exercent’ or with ‘tuti.

[62] Balatum exercent like “exercet cantusG. 1. 403. ‘Inprobus’ 2. 356, also of a wolf: see on ib. 80, G. 1. 119. Serv. says “Non ‘ira inprobus’ sed ‘ira saevit:’” but the run of the verse is rather in favour of the former connexion; his anger makes him desperate.

[63] Heyne comp. an imitation in Val. F. 3. 589, “Frangit et absentem vacuis sub dentibus hostem.” ‘Edendi rabies,’ a stronger expression than “amor edendi” 8. 184. Comp. 8. 327 note. ‘Colligere rabiem’ like “sitim collegeritG. 3. 327. ‘Fatigat’ nearly i. q. “domat,” 6. 79.

[64] Ex longo with ‘collecta,’ gathered from a distance (of time). No other instance of ‘ex longo’ is quoted. “Siccum sanguine guttur” in different sense 8. 261. “Faucibus siccis” 2. 358, of the wolf cubs.

[65] Turnus is called ‘Rutulus’ as in 7. 409.

[66] Duris ossibus 6. 54. Pal. and originally Gud. have ‘durus.’ ‘Et,’ which was read before ‘duris’ by editors before Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. ‘Dolor’ of indignation 5. 172.

[67] Qua temptet &c. depend on the preceding words, which imply, though they do not express, a state of doubt. Ribbeck, following Peerlkamp, throws this and the following line into the form of a question, comparing vv. 399 foll.; but this would not be so good. ‘Quae via’ Pal. originally, Rom., ‘qua via’ fragm. Vat., Med., Pal. corrected, Gud. &c. Serv. has both. Heyne and Wagn. rightly prefer the former, which is really a poetical variety for the abl. “qua via.” Those who introduced ‘qua’ may have mistaken the nom. for the abl., as Serv. finds it necessary to remark that ‘via’ abl. would be unmetrical. Ribbeck reads ‘qua vi’ from his own conj., which would introduce a rhythm seldom employed by Virg., and without justification here. ‘Via’ of a method 12. 405.

[68] Vallo probably with ‘excutiat.’ “Patria excussos” 7. 299. ‘Aequum’ Pal. corrected, Med., Rom., fragm. Vat., ‘aequor’ Pal. originally, Gud., and two other of Ribbeck's cursives. The sense is the same either way, the level plain being opposed to the vantage-ground of the camp.

[69] He attempts to draw them out by setting fire to the fleet. ‘Adiuncta’ of close juxtaposition, like “adfixus lateri” 10. 161.

[70] For ‘saeptam’ Rom. has ‘clausam,’ from a recollection of 1. 311, which is generally similar. The ‘agger’ of the camp protects the fleet on three sides, the water on the fourth, as Mr. Long observes: the two together enclose it ‘circum.

[71] Comp. Il. 15. 716 foll., where Hector attempts to set fire to the Grecian fleet.

[72] “Flagrantem fervida pinum Sustinet” 7. 397. After this line Ribbeck inserts vv. 146, 7, reading ‘Sic vos . . . qui scindere:’ see note there.

[73] “Tum vero Teucri incumbunt” 4. 397, after Aeneas' arrival, which illustrates “urguet praesentia Turni.

[74] Accingitur, used loosely: see on 6. 570. ‘Face atra’ 10. 77.

[75, 76] These two lines generally resemble 5. 660—666. ‘Diripuere’ of instantaneous action. A question is raised about the ‘foci.’ Serv. answers it best, “Quaeritur quid ibi faciant foci; sed in carminibus quaedam nec ad subtilitatem nec ad veritatem exigenda sunt: aut certe focos quos ibi habere potuerunt,” Heyne perhaps worst, “focos a Rutulis extemplo exstructos fuisse cogitandum est.” It is plain that Virg. supposed there to be dwellings near from which fire could be got. ‘Fumida taeda’ and ‘Volcanus’ are rather inartificially coupled together. Comp. generally 7. 76, 77. The blaze is from the torches, not from the ships, which are not set alight. ‘Piceum lumen’ like “atro lumine fumantis taedas” 7. 456. Perhaps ‘ad astra’ refers to ‘favillam’ only: the blaze is spread, the soot is carried up to heaven.

[77-122] ‘The fleet is saved by a divine interposition. When the ships were building, Cybele entreated that they might be for ever protected from wind and rain. Jupiter refused this, but promised that such of them as reached Italy should be turned into sea-nymphs. The change accordingly takes place.’

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