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[651] 651—687 are missing in Rom. ‘Adversa ora saucius,’ struck right in the face. Saces is not elsewhere mentioned.

[652] Saucius ora like “saucius pectus” v. 5 above. “Ex multis rebus indicat perturbationem: quod festinans venit, quod per hostes, quod volneratus, quod Turnum nomine appellat” Serv.

[653] “Omnia quae supra Iuturna dixerat oratio ista dissolvit” Serv. ‘Suprema salus,’ our whole safety: all the safety left us: “summa salus” in Cic. Cat. 1. 5, quoted by Wagn., has a different sense.

[654, 655] Fulminat armis like “fulminat belloG. 4. 561 (note). ‘Minatur deiecturum’ like “excisurum urbem minitans” v. 762 below: comp. Livy 1. 37, “nec gesturos melius sperare poterant;” 6. 17, “refracturosque carcerem minabantur;” 28. 23, “pollicentes—prodituros esse.” See Madv. § 401. ‘Exscidium’ in Virg. always of the ruin of a nation, city, or country.

[657] Mussat, poetical for ‘dubitat,’ with a clause depending on it, as in 11. 345 (note), “dicere mussat:” comp. v. 718 below. So Enn. A. 348, “Exspectans si mussaret quae denique pausa Pugnandi fieret aut duri finis laboris.

[658] Generos, the pl. generalizing the idea as in 7. 98, “externi veniunt generi;” ib. 270, “generos externis adfore ab oris.

[659] The constr. ‘tui fidissima’ may be an extension either (as Heyne suggests) of the more ordinary “tui amantissima,” or of the common use of ‘fiducia’ with gen., a case which does not in ordinary Latin stand with the adj. ‘fidus.’ Or, thirdly, ‘fidissima’ may stand for a substantive: ‘your most faithful one.’

[660] Exterrita, as of Dido 4. 450. “Caelum exterrita fugit” of the adder G. 3. 417.

[661] Acer Atinas 11. 869. Some of Pierius' copies had ‘Asilas:’ “fortasse rectius,” says Ribbeck.

[662] Sustineant Med. a m. p. for ‘sustentant.’ ‘Acies’ Med. and Gud. for ‘aciem.’ ‘Sustentare aciem’ is used by Tac. Ann. 1. 65 (probably following Virg.), in the sense of keeping troops from flight: “Caecina dum sustentat aciem suffosso equo delapsus,” &c. (Forc.), and so “sustentare diem,” or ‘sustentare’ by itself by Caesar. Whether ‘sustentare acies’ would mean, as Wagn. thinks, “sustentare impetum hostium,” seems doubtful. The reading ‘acies,’ as he suggests, may be due to the frequency of the letter s in the surrounding words.

[663] “Atraque late Horrescit strictis seges ensibus” 7. 526 note.

[664] Ferrea: for the position of the adj. comp. 11. 626. ‘Gramine,’ suggesting that the ground had been untrodden. The language is perhaps suggested by Il. 22. 11, νύ τοι οὕτι μέλει Τρώων φόβος, οὓς ἐφόβησας, Οἳ δή τοι εἰς ἄστυ ἄλεν, σὺ δὲ δεῦρο λιάσθης.

[665] Varia, distracting.

[666] Obtutus, of a fixed gaze, as in 1. 495., 7. 249. V. 667 is repeated from 10. 871. ‘Ingens’ in sense almost adverbial, and to be connected closely with ‘aestuat.’ The Verona fragment preserves vv. 667—718.

[667] Insania significant as marking Virg.'s conception of Turnus' character. See v. 680 below. It has been elsewhere remarked that the word ‘violentia’ is applied to no one but him.

[668] ‘Amōr:’ see Excursus to this book. ‘Conscia,’ knowing its own worth: comp. “virtus conscia laudis” Sen. Herc. Oet. 1207 (Forc.).

[669] Comp. with Cerda, Catull. 63 (61). 46, “Liquidaque mente vidit sine quis ubique foret.” ‘Umbrae:’ so Catull. 64 (62). 207, “Ipse autem caeca mentem caligine Theseus Consitus,” &c., which Munro thinks is imitated from Lucr. 3.304, “suffundens caecae caliginis umbra” (of anger). For ‘discussae’ comp. Lucr. 4. 997, “Donec discussis redeant erroribus ad se.” Some MSS. have ‘vox’ for ‘lux:’ an absurd reminiscence of 3. 40 and 7. 95.

[670] Oculorum orbes, Sophocles' ὀμμάτων κύκλοι, Ant. 974.

[671] Turbidus, with fear and confusion here, as with hope in 10. 648. ‘Rotis’ for “curru” as G. 3. 114, &c.

[672] Tabulata, the floorings, 2. 464 note: comp. also 9. 537, “(flammam) quae plurima vento Corripuit tabulas.” “Excelsae turris tabulata” Juv. 10. 106. ‘Flammis,’ where perhaps a prose writer would have said “flammarum:” comp. “strictis seges ensibus” v. 663 above; “telisque volatile ferrum Spargitur” 8. 694. See also on 3. 46.

[673] Vertex, a whirlwind of flame: comp. Hor. 4 Od. 11. 11, “Sordidum flammae trepidant rotantes Vertice fumum.

[674] There is a tower similarly constructed and used for purposes of defence 9. 530 foll. Virg.'s description is well illustrated by Veget. 4. 17, “Turres autem dicuntur machinamenta ad aedificiorum speciem ex trabibus tabulatisque compacta. His plures rotae mechanica arte subdunturin inferioribus habet arietem, cuius impetu destruit muros, circa mediam vero partem accipit pontem, factum de duabus trabibus.” See Dict. A. s. v. ‘Turris.’ ‘Educo’ as in 2. 461.

[675] ‘Pontes’ as in 9. 530, to connect the tower with the wall. ‘Instruxerat’ for ‘instraverat’ Minoraug. and some inferior copies.

[676] Turnus seems to take the destruction of his own handiwork as an omen of coming death. For ‘iam iam’ Minoraug. has ‘iam nos.’ With the sense comp. v. 150 above, “Parcarumque dies et vis inimica propinquat.Νῦν αὖτέ με Μοῖρα κιχάνει, says Hector Il. 22. 303. ‘Morari,’ to try to check the course of destiny by keeping me back. Pal. and Gud. have ‘morare.

[677] Cerda well quotes 5. 709, “Nate dea, quo fata trahunt retrahuntque, sequamur: Quidquid erit, superanda omnis fortuna ferendo est.” For the second ‘quo’ Pal. has ‘qua.

[678-680] Stat 2. 750 note. ‘Quidquid acerbi est, Morte pati,’ ‘to suffer in death all its bitterness,’ or ‘whatever bitterness I must know:’ joining ‘morte’ with ‘pati,’ not, as Heyne does, with ‘acerbi est.’ ‘Acerbum’ Goth. pr., and so the MSS. of Serv. on 2. 750. ‘Hunc, oro,’ &c. ‘ante’ = ‘first:’ ‘before the bitterness of death come:’ comp. Hector's words Il. 22. 304, Μὴ μὰν ἀσπουδί γε καὶ ἀκλειῶς ἀπολοίμην, Ἀλλὰ μέγα ῥέξας τι καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι. So 9. 315 ‘ante’ is used without a specified object, “multis tamen ante futuri Exitio.” It is difficult to see why Heyne should object as he does to this ‘ante.’ ‘Furere furorem’ well agrees with the general character of Turnus.

[681] Arvis, probably dat. for “in arva,” according to the constr. of which Virg. is so fond. ‘Saltum dare’ is not found elsewhere in Virg. Ov. borrows it M. 4. 552.

[683] Cerda quotes Prop. 4. 10. 62, “At Decius misso proelia rupit equo.

[684] The simile is from Il. 13. 137 foll. The difference between Virg. and Hom. is that Homer makes Hector stop when he meets with the πυκιναὶ φάλαγγες just as the stone stops (ἐσσύμενός περ) when it reaches the plain: whereas with Virg., whose object here is to glorify Turnus, the stone must do real destruction, which in Hom. it does not. Wagn. is right in removing Heyne's comma after ‘veluti,’ which does not go with ‘fertur,’ v. 687.

[685] The meaning seems to be that the wind moves it at last, whether it be a storm or length of time that has originally loosened it. Heyne however considers ‘vento’ as a third alternative: “avolsum vento, seu imbre seu vetustate.” ‘Turbidus imber’ is an abbreviation of Hom., whose words are: Ὅντε κατὰ στεφάνης ποταμὸς χειμάρ᾽ῥοος ὤσῃ, Ῥήξας ἀσπέτῳ ὄμβρῳ ἀναιδέος ἔχματα πέτρης.

[686] Seu and ‘aut’ treated as equivalents, as in 5. 68, 69, where ‘aut’ comes first. ‘Sublapsa vetustas’ may mean as it stands ‘old age that has stolen upon it’ and loosened its support, though Virg. may very probably have meant to suggest a more ordinary combination of words, such as “saxum vetustate sublapsum.” ‘Annis,’ through length of years. ‘Proluit’ and ‘solvit’ seem to be perfects, not presents. This passage is imitated by Valerius Flaccus, 2. 528. With the language generally comp. Lucr. 6.552, “Fit quoque ubi in magnas aquae vastasque lacunas Gleba vetustate e terra provolvitur ingens.

[687] ‘In abruptum’ 3. 422. ‘Mons inprobus,Homer's ἀκαιδὴς πέτρη, λᾶας ἀναιδής. Taubmann quotes a grotesque etymology from Isidore: “inprobus dictus, quod instat etiam prohibenti.” The meaning seems to be ‘reckless.’ Virg. in changing ‘mons’ for ‘saxum’ has kept curiously close to Homer's language: ‘montis saxum de vertice’ is ὀλοοίτροχος ἀπὸ πέτρης, ‘mons inprobus’ is ἀναιδὴς πέτρη. ‘Actus’ of speed, as Lucr. 3.192, “Et pigri latices magis et cunctantior actus.” ‘Ictu’ for ‘actu’ Minoraug. with some inferior copies. The clause ‘fertursecum’ does not depend on ‘veluti,’ but is (in construction) parenthetical.

[688] Hom. only says: Ὕψι δ᾽ ἀναθρώσκων πέτεται, κτυπέει δέ θ᾽ ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ Ὕλη.

[689] Involvens secum, rolling down in its own fall. ‘Disiecta,’ that he has scattered: so v. 482 above.

[690] Plurima fuso, &c., like “haec eadem (terra) . . . auro plurima fluxitG. 2. 166.

[691] Virg. always uses the forms ‘stridĕre,’ ‘stridit,’ and ‘stridunt,’ though Rom. gives ‘stridet’ pres. G. 4. 262, and Med. originally ‘strident’ A. 8. 420. The resemblance of this passage to Il. 13. 789 foll., comp. by Heyne, is very slight.

[692] Significo a ἅπαξ λεγόμενον in Virg. Comp. Il. 3. 81, 82, Αὐτὰρ μακρὸν ἄϋσεν ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν Ἀγαμέμνων: Ἴσχεσθ᾽, Ἀργεῖοι, μὴ βάλλετε, κοῦροι Ἀχαιῶν. ‘Sic’ Gud. for ‘simul.

[693] Parcite: so 6. 834, “Tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo: Proiice tela manu, sanguis meus!” 9. 656, “Cetera parce, puer, bello.

[694] ‘I take on myself the event, whatever it be.’ ‘Verius’ = “aequius,” as in Hor. 2 S. 3. 312, 1 Ep. 7. 98., 12. 23: Forc. gives other instances.

[695] Foedus luere, condensed for “poenas pro foedere rupto luere” (or perhaps as Peerlkamp suggests, “poenas quas propter turpe illud foedus meruistis”): comp. 2. 229 (note), where “scelus expendisse” = “poenas pro scelere expendisse.” ‘Decernere ferro’ 7. 525, v. 282 above.

[697-745] ‘Aeneas and Turnus meet in single combat. The sword in Turnus' hand, which was that of Metiscus, taken by mistake for his own, shivers when it strikes the armour of Aeneas, and Turnus takes to flight.’ Comp. Il. 20. 423 (of Achilles when he saw Hector coming to meet him) αὐτὰρ Ἀχιλλεὺς Ὡς εἶδ᾽, ὣς ἀνέπαλτο κ.τ.λ.

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