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[833] “Ad fluminis undam” 3. 389.

[834] Virg. may have had in his mind the lines about Sarpedon, Il. 5. 692 foll. Οἱ μὲν ἄρ᾽ ἀντίθεον Σαρπηδόνα δῖοι ἑταῖροι Εἷσαν ὑπ᾽ αἰγιόχοιο Διὸς περικαλλέϊ φηγῷ (Heyne). ‘Levabat’ Serv., and so two of Ribbeck's cursives: ‘lavabat’ Med., Pal., Rom., perhaps suggested by ‘volnera siccabat lymphis,’ was staunching the wound with water: ‘siccare volnera’ is Hom.'s τέρσειν ἕλκος (Il. 11. 848). Virg.'s somewhat bold expression is copied twice by Statius, Theb. 1. 527., 10. 716 (Heyne and Forb.).

[835] ‘Adclinis’ occurs Hor. 2 S. 2. 6, but elsewhere apparently only in postAugustan writers (Forc.). ‘Ramo’ Rom. for ‘ramis,’ and so the MSS. of Serv. on E. 6. 16. ‘Procul’ of a short distance, as E. 6. 16, Hor. 2 S. 6. 105 (where Orelli gives a number of instances), 1 Ep. 7. 32. With the general picture comp. 6. 651 foll.

[838] Colla fovet, relieves his neck by leaning it against the tree or his hand. “Mulcens propexam ad pectora barbam” Ov. F. 1. 259 (Peerlk.), but Virg.'s ‘in pectore’ is more delicate. Comp. “effusus in undis” 6. 339, “curvae in terris animae” (if this be the right reading) Pers. 2. 61. ‘Propexi crines’ occurs in a line of Attius quoted by Serv. on 12. 605. ‘Corpore’ Pal. and Gud. for ‘pectore.

[839] Rogitans Pal. from 1. 750. ‘Multos’ Gud. corrected, with some supportfrom two other of Ribbeck's cursives and some inferior copies: and so Gossr. ‘Multum’ (= “saepe”) is confirmed by Serv.

[841] The rhythm well suits the sense. ‘Ferebant’ matches ‘ferant’ in the last line. With the whole comp. vv. 505, 506 above. ‘Super arma’ like “inpositum clipeo” there. The form ‘exanimis’ is commoner in the sing. than ‘exanimus.

[842] “Ingentem atque ingenti volnere victum” recurs 12. 640. Κεῖτο μέγας μεγαλωστί (of Kebriones) Il. 16. 776. Lucr. 1.741 has a naive imitation of Hom.'s line: comp. A. 5. 447 note.

[843] Longe, from far, as in the phrase “longe fallente sagitta.” Comp. Lucr. 1.230, “Unde mare ingenui fontes externaque longe Flumina suppeditant” (where Munro has recalled ‘longe’ in his 2nd ed.). ‘Adgnovit longe gemitum’ borrowed by Ov. M. 10. 719 (Forb.). ‘Praesaga mali mens’ like κακόμαντις θυμός Aesch. Pers. 10 (Cerda).

[844] “Canitiem inmundo perfusam pulvere turpans” 12. 611, whence Med. (second reading) has ‘inmundo’ for ‘multo’ here, and this was the reading before Heins. “Canitiem terra atque infuso pulvere foedans” Catull. 62 (64). 224, copied from Il. 18. 23 foll. Ἀμφοτέρῃσι δὲ χερσὶν ἑλὼν κόνιν αἰθαλόεσσαν Χεύατο κὰκ κεφαλῆς . . . φίλῃσι δὲ χερσὶ κόμην ᾔσχυνε δαΐζων.

[845] For the constr. ‘corpore inhaeret’ see on v. 361 above.

[847] Succedere v. 690 above (note). For the fact comp. v. 797 above.

[850] Exilium seems to have been read by Serv. So Gud. originally; and another of Ribbeck's cursives gives it in the margin. Heyne adopted it against the authority of the best MSS., but Wagn. restored from them ‘exitium,’ which is perhaps preferable, as Mezentius mentions his exile two lines below. The meaning is, ‘Now at length my death is unhappy: had it been otherwise, I should have welcomed it.’ Comp. for the thought 7. 599, “Funere felici spolior.” ‘Nunc alte’ &c., now my wound is driven deep. ‘Adactus’ of a sword driven home 9. 431.

[851] Idem, i. e. besides causing your death. ‘Maculavi’ &c.: “Feci ut exulis et sacrilegi filius esse dicereris.” Serv. ‘Crimen’ in the sense of ‘dedecus,’ as ‘reproach’ with us is used in the sense of ‘dishonour.’

[852] Ob invidiam, for the hatred I excited. The words are repeated 11. 539. ‘Sceptra,’ royal power, as in 1. 78 &c. Comp. the use of σκῆπτρα in the Greek tragedians (e. g. Soph. O. C. 425). “Maiestas soliorum et sceptra superbaLucr. 5.1137.

[853, 854] Debueram, categorical, not hypothetical, as Heyne says. ‘I owed the debt to my people: I ought to have given (or, would I had given) my life myself.’ The pluperf. seems to mean ‘I had owed it already before the chance of death came.’ Comp. 11. 162, “Animam ipse dedissem, Atque haec pompa domum me, non Pallanta, referret.” On ‘dedissem’ see note on 4. 678. ‘Omnis per mortis’ does not seem to mean every kind of death, but death from every quarter: he ought to have exhausted every death himself before that one should reach Lausus. The allusion is doubtless to vv. 691 foll. above. ‘Per’ seems partly instrumental, partly, as Peerlkamp thinks, on the analogy of “per volnera.

[856] Simul hoc dicens like “simul his dictis” 11. 827. ‘Simul’ may go either with part. or verb (comp. 12. 755), but perhaps the former is better: comp. Livy 22. 3, “Haec simul increpans cum ocius signa convelli iuberet” (Wagn.). The construction may be an imitation of the Greek ἅμα λέγων or ἅμα εἰπών. ‘Attollit se in femur’ not unlike “cubat in faciem” Juv. 3. 280. So we say ‘raises himself on his thigh, so as to rest on his thigh.’

[857] Quamquam vis Serv. and Ribbeck's MSS., Pal. however having marks of erasure over the first ‘quam’ (thus leaving ‘quamvis’). Hence Ribbeck adopts Peerlkamp's ingenious conjecture ‘quamvis dolor alto volnere tardet.’ Some inferior copies are said by Heyne to give ‘quanquam sese alto,’ ‘quanquam alto sese,’ ‘quamvis alto se,’ &c. ‘Tardat’ Pal. originally: ‘ardat’ Med., corrected into ‘tardet:’ ‘tardet’ Pal. corrected, Gud. originally, with two of Ribbeck's cursives. It is safer to retain ‘tardat,’ though ‘quamquam’ sometimes takes the subj., as in Cic. de Or. 2. 1. 1, “quamquam . . . arbitrarentur” (Forc.): comp. A. 6. 394, and see Madv. § 361, obs. 3. If ‘tardat’ be taken transitively, ‘vis’ must = his ‘diminished strength’ (Serv. takes ‘vis alto volnere’ as = “volneris alti violentia”): but it is also permissible to take it intransitively: comp. Cic. (?) ad Brut. 1. 18, “an tardare et commorari te melius esset:ad Att. 6. 7, “numquid putes reipublicae nomine tardandum esse nobis” (Wagn. and Forb.): so “retardare” N. D. 2. 20. But it may be questioned whether Serv.'s interpretation, though involving a harsh construction with the abl., is not the true one, as otherwise we should rather have expected ‘vires.

[858] The affection of Mezentius, the tyrant and “contemptor divum,” for his horse is striking and characteristic. The passages in Hom. quoted by Heyne (Il. 8. 184 foll., 19. 400 foll.) are not very like this. With ‘equum . . . hoc decus erat’ comp. 3. 660, “oves; ea sola voluptas Solamenque mali.” ‘Decus,’ his glory or treasure.

[859] Erit Gud. originally, whence Heins. conj. ‘heri.’ “Bellis” = “a proeliis:” comp. 2. 439.

[860] Maerentem: comp. 11. 89, “Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon, It lacrimans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora:” Il. 17. 426, Ἵπποι δ᾽ Αἰακίδαο μάχης ἀπάνευθεν ἐόντες, Κλαῖον &c. ‘Ac talia fatur’ Rom. for ‘et talibus infit.’ ‘Infit’ 5. 708 note.

[861] Utra est (meaning perhaps ‘ultra est’) Rom. for ‘ulla est.’ Heyne says, “Gravis sententia et h. l. affectus plena.

[862] Viximus applies both to horse and master. ‘Cruenti’ Pal. originally, and so Ribbeck: ‘cruenta’ Med., Rom., Pal. corrected, and Gud. ‘Cruenta’ Serv., who mentions ‘cruenti:’ “Si autemcruenti,intellexeris scilicet crudelis.” ‘Cruenta’ gives far the best sense: ‘you will bring back those arms of Aeneas stained with his blood.’ Serv. takes it, those arms that Lausus' blood has stained. Comp. Il. 8. 191, Ἀλλ᾽ ἐφομαρτεῖτον καὶ σπεύδετον, αἴ κε λάβωμεν Ἀσπίδα Νεστορέην, τῆς νῦν κλέος οὐρανὸν ἵκει.

[863] Dolorem Pal. and originally Gud. Rom. has ‘u’ in an erasure. ‘Lausi dolorum’ may mean either ‘Lausus' pains’ or ‘my pains for Lausus:’ if the latter, comp. “dolores suarum rerum” Cic. Phil. 8. 6. 18: “agri ademti dolorem” Livy 8. 13. Perhaps Virg. was thinking of the ambiguous line Τίσασθαι Ἑλένης ὁρμήματά τε στοναχάς τε Il. 2. 356, 590.

[864] “Fit via vi” 2. 494. “Aperire viam” 11. 884.

[865] Pariter as in 9. 182, “Pariterque in bella ruebant.” Comp. with the thought Shakspeare, Rich. II. 5. 5, “That jade hath eat bread from my royal hand: This hand hath made him proud with clapping him. Would he not stumble? would he not fall down, Since pride must have a fall, and break the neck Of that proud man that did usurp his back?”

[866] Wagn. rightly makes ‘credo’ parenthetical; but it is not clear that he is right in supposing a double construction, ‘dignabere pati’ and ‘dignabere dominos,’ as ‘pati’ could govern ‘dominos’ as well as ‘iussa.

[867] “Exceptus equo” Sil. 5. 149 (Gossr.). “Ille . . . regem sponte genua submittens excipiebat” of Bucephalus, Q. Curtius 6. 5. 17.

[868] “Iaculo palmas armavit acuto” 11. 574, where some MSS. have ‘oneravit.’ We should rather have expected ‘armavit’ here, as ‘oneravit’ can hardly be meant to indicate his comparative weakness.

[870] Cursu redit Rom. for ‘cursum dedit,’ rather plausibly. ‘Cursum dare’ like “fugam dare” 12. 367.

[871] Una for ‘uno’ Gud. corrected. Many edd. and perhaps some MSS. read ‘imo.’ The words are constantly confused in cursives. ‘Dolor’ for ‘pudor’ the MS. known as the Medicean of Pierius: ‘pudor’ is confirmed by Serv. ‘Mixto insania luctu’ like “mixta cruor arena” 12. 340, “mixto pulvere fumum” 2. 609. This line recurs 12. 668, and is followed there by the verse “Et furiis agitatus amor et conscia virtus,” which is also added here (by a later hand) in the margin of Gud., and forms part of the text in another of Ribbeck's cursives. One or two copies give it after v. 875. But it is omitted in Med., Pal., and Rom., and was not read by Serv., who says, “Tribus affectibus conturbatum significat, pudore, ira, dolore.

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