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[873] Aeneae Med. first reading. “Magna Manis ter voce vocavi” 6. 506.

[874] It is unnatural (with Wagn.) to put ‘adgnovit enim’ in a parenthesis. ‘Enim’ here is merely emphatic: see 6. 317 note, and comp. 8. 84, G. 2. 509.

[875] Ille: comp. “ita ille faxit Iuppiter,Plaut. Most. 2. 1. 51, Pseud. 4. 1. 19. See 7. 110, 558., 2. 780. ‘Altus’ in 6. 9 (note) has a special force as applied to Apollo of Cumae: here the idea seems to be that of majesty. Comp. “alta Juno” Ov. M. 3. 284., 12. 505 (Forb.). Virg. thought of Hom.'s Αἲ γὰρ Ζεῦ τε πάτερ καὶ Ἀθηναίη καὶ Ἄπολλον (Il. 2. 371., 16. 97), which is followed by an optative: so that the early editors are right as against Wagn. (after Heyne) and the later in connecting ‘incipias’ closely with ‘faciat.

[876] Incipias, perhaps rather ‘undertake’ than ‘begin:’ comp. 2. 13. Some inferior MSS. add “et mihi iungere pugnam.

[877] “Tantum effatus, et in verbo vestigia torsit” 6. 547.

[878, 879] ‘Why do you try to frighten me now that you have done your worst and I have nothing more to fear?’ The force of the pres. ‘terres’ is the same as that of ‘proturbant’ v. 801 note. Rom. has ‘terreas,’ which Pierius seriously deliberates about reconciling with the metre.

[880] Nec divom parcimus ulli, referring to Aeneas' invocation of the gods (Serv.). ‘Your gods shall feel my spear as well as you.’ Comp. Diomed's conduct to Aphrodite Il. 5. 330 foll. This is a more natural way of taking the words than Heyne's, who strains ‘parcere’ into the meaning of ‘curare.’ The word ‘parcere’ may have been suggested to Virg. by the language of Polyphemus, Od. 9. 277, Οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἐγὼ Διιὸς ἔχθος ἀλευάμενος πεφιδοίμην Οὔτε σεῦ οὔθ᾽ ἑτάρων (Cerda). “Verum parcite dignitati Lentuli, si ipse . . famae suae, si dis aut hominibus unquam ullis pepercit” Cato ap. Sallust. Cat. 52. 33.

[881] Nam is rightly restored by Jahn and Wagn. for ‘iam,’ which is found in Gud. alone among Ribbeck's MSS. ‘Moriturus:’ see on v. 811. ‘Porto’ rather than ‘mitto:’ Mezentius is carrying the presents himself, and he proceeds to offer them immediately.

[883] Fugit originally Pal. and Med., corrected ‘figit.’ Heyne was much inclined to adopt ‘fugit,’ wishing to punctuate ‘Inde aliud super atque aliud: fugitque, volatque:’ a violent change of tense. ‘Volutat’ Gud. originally for ‘volatque:’ whence Heins. read ‘volutatque.’ ‘Figitque volatque’ = he throws them as he flies.

[884] Aereus Pal. and one of Ribbeck's cursives for ‘aureus:’ perhaps from ‘aerato’ v. 887. Med. has a similar error v. 271 above, where, as here, ‘umbo’ stands for the whole shield.

[885] Adstantem, standing ready to meet him. He rides round Aeneas towards the left, so as to have his shield always towards him. With ‘laevos equitavit in orbis’ comp. Ov. M. 12. 468, “certumque equitavit in orbem.

[886, 887] “Tela manu iaciunt” v. 264 above. ‘Secum,’ he turns round and turns the shield with him. Gud. gives ‘agmine’ in the margin as a variant for ‘tegmine.’ ‘Aerato’ probably not χάλκεος but χαλκόδετος (χαλκοδέτων σακέων Aesch. Theb. 160). Both brass and gold were used in the texture of Aeneas' shield: see 8. 445. ‘Silvam,’ the forest of arrows. Forb. comp. Lucan 6. 205, “densamque ferens in pectore silvam.

[888, 889] Tot moras is peculiar for “tantum morae,” but Virg. probably wished to balance ‘tot spicula.’ ‘Iniqua pugna’ because he is on foot. Serv.

[890] Multa movens animo 3. 34. ‘Erupit’ Gud.

[891] Il. 8. 83, Ἄκρην κὰκ κορυφήν, ὅθι τε πρῶται τρίχες ἵππων Κρανίῳ ἐμπεφύασι, μάλιστα δὲ καίριόν ἐστι, Ἀλγήσας δ᾽ ἀνέπαλτο &c. Comp. also Livy 8. 7, where the equestrian fight between the young Manlius and Maecius is described in language not unlike Virg.'s: “Circumactis deinde equis quum prior ad iterandum ictum Manlius consurrexisset, spiculum inter aures equi fixit: ad cuius volneris sensum quum equus prioribus pedibus erectis magna vi caput quateret, excussit equitem” &c. (Heyne.) “Bellator equus” 11. 89, G. 2. 145.

[892] The horse rears, throws his rider, and falls upon him. ‘Calces’ usually means the hind-feet of a horse: and so Heyne would take it here, straining the words unnaturally. But Sil. 17. 134 imitating this passage uses ‘calces’ for the fore-feet, “erexitque ore cruento Quadripedem, elatis pulsantem calcibus auras” (of fire thrown at the horse's nostrils).

[894] Electo Med. and originally Gud. ‘Delecto’ Gud. corrected. ‘Eiecto’ Heyne joins with ‘domino’ understood, ‘his fallen master:’ but it is better to take it with ‘armo,’ ‘putting out his shoulder,’ for ‘eiicere’ appears to have been the ordinary word for dislocating a limb: see Veget. Vet. 3. 41, “Si iumentum cervicem eiecerit aut laxaverit (luxaverit?):” ib. 45, “Quod si eiecerit iuxta consuetudinem ad rotam armum, reponito:” comp. also Hyginus Fab. 57 and Muncker's note (Forc. s. v. ‘eiicere’ and ‘eiecto’). Silius' imitation 10. 255 leaves it doubtful how he understood ‘eiecto:’ “quamquam Cernuus inflexo sonipes effuderat armo.” ‘Cernuus,’ with head bowed forwards. The word occurs twice in the extant fragments of Lucilius: Sat. 3. 43, “Cernuus extemplo plantas convestit (convertit?) honestas:” 27. 34, “Modo sorsum modo deorsum tanquam collus cernui.” ‘Cernuare’ is used of a tumbler by Varro ap. Non. 1. 76, and of a horse thrusting down his head by Solinus 45. ‘Cernulus’ Rom., Pal. corrected, and originally Gud.

[895] Clamore incendunt caelum is an instance of the not uncommon poetical licence which speaks of sound in language properly applicable to light: comp. with Heyne Aesch. Pers. 395, Σάλπιγξ δ᾽ ἀϋτῇ πάντ᾽ ἐκεῖν᾽ ἐπέφλεγεν. Heyne's explanation, that ‘incendere’ = ‘augere,’ and ‘clamore incendunt caelum’ = ‘clamorem incendunt caelo,’ is unnatural. “Incendunt clamoribus urbem” 11. 147. Comp. 9. 500 note. The hypermeter is like that in 4. 629, G. 2. 344 &c.

[897] Super, over him: see v. 556 above. The words are something like Il. 5. 472, Ἕκτορ, πῆ δή τοι μένος οἴχεται, πρὶν ἔχεσκες; comp. also Il. 13. 219.

[898] Et for ‘ut’ a m. s. Med., and so Pal. corrected. ‘Et’ Gud., giving ‘ut’ as a variant. Rom. has the first letter of ‘ut’ in an erasure. ‘Auras suspiciens’ 3. 600 note.

[899] δ᾽ ἐπεὶ οὖν ἄμπνυτο καὶ ἐς φρένα θυμὸς ἀγέρθη Il. 22. 475 (Cerda). ‘Hausit caelum’ like “lucem pecudes hausereG. 2. 340 note, where perhaps it is too hastily assumed that the reference here is to drinking in by the eye. “Et nostra infantia caelum Hausit Aventinum” is Juvenal's imitation 3. 84, and would seem to show that he understood it of breathing. Comp. Cic. Cat. 1. 6. 15, “Potestne tibi haec lux, Catilina, aut huius caeli spiritus esse iucundus” &c.: “caelo hoc ac spiritu” pro Rab. Perd. 5. “Alium domi esse caeli haustum, alium lucis aspectum” Quint. Curt. 5. 5. 19. “Paullatim redit in sensus animamque receptatLucr. 3.505. “Recipere se” is a phrase: see Dictt.

[900] The thought is that Aeneas need not make words about what Mezentius regards as a matter of course.

[901] Nec sic &c., I did not come to the battle on these terms: i. e. with any thought of quarter. He may refer to his own words just above, v. 880. Notice the emphatic juxtaposition of ‘tecum’ and ‘meus.’ With the expression generally, comp. “aut haec in foedera veni” 4. 339.

[902] It is doubtful whether the meaning is ‘Lausus when he attacked you did not suppose that you would spare me and did not intend to spare you,’ or ‘Lausus by his death sealed the covenant that neither of us was to spare the other:’ as we might say, his death settled that question between us. But it is quite possible that both meanings may be included, the whole of Lausus' relation to Aeneas' doing and suffering being regarded as a negotiation on his father's behalf, conducted on certain terms. The latter meaning is parallel to v. 532 above, “Belli commercia Turnus Sustulit ista prior iam tum Pallante perempto.” Very possibly Virg. may have thought of Achilles' reply to Hector Il. 22. 265: “ὣς οὐκ ἔστ᾽ ἐμὲ καὶ σὲ φιλήμεναι, οὔτε τι νῶϊν
ὅρκια ἔσσονται, πρίν γ᾽ ἕτερόν γε πεσόντα
αἵματος ἆσαι Ἄρηα, ταλαύρινον πολεμιστήν.

[903] Per si qua &c. 2. 142 note. After his repudiation of all claim to consideration, it is natural that he should speak doubtfully.

[904, 905] “Humo tegere” of burial 3. 558. With ‘circumstare odia’ comp. Tac. H. 1. 18, “Circumsteterat interim Palatium publica expectatio.” ‘Defende furorem’ like Horace's “defendit aestatem capellis,” quoted on E. 7. 47.

[906] The words should be taken ‘concede me sepulchro, consortem nati:’ as ‘consors’ (see Forc.) is generally constructed with the gen., not the dat.

[907] Haud inscius, deliberately: comp. 4. 508, “haud ignara futuri,” and 9. 552, “seseque haud nescia morti Iniicit.” ‘Ensem accipit’ suggested by the phrase “ferrum recipere,” used of a conquered gladiator yielding himself to death (Taubm.). See Cic. Tusc. 2. 17. Pro Sest. 37 (Forc.). Comp. also “solio accipit” 7. 210, “toro accipit” 8. 177, of welcoming, where as here the abl. may be either local or modal.

[908] Anima and ‘cruorem’ Pal. originally. Med. also originally ‘cruorem.’ ‘Cruore’ confirmed by Serv. ‘Defundit’ Rom., and originally Gud., for ‘diffundit.’ For ‘arma’ one inferior MS. has ‘arva:’ “non male,” says Ribbeck. Wagn. comp. 9. 349, “Purpuream vomit ille animam.” The thought is like that in Shaksp. Rich. III. 1. 1, “Sluiced out his innocent soul through streams of blood.”

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