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[500] The form of the sentence may be suggested by Il. 5. 703, Ἔνθα τίνα πρῶτον τίνα δ᾽ ὕστατον ἐξενάριξεν Ἕκτωρ τε Πριάμοιο πάϊς καὶ χάλκεος Ἄρης; Comp. 9. 525, “Vos, o Calliope, precor, adspirate canenti, Quas ibi tum ferro strages,” &c.

[501, 502] Aequore toto goes with ‘inque vicem:’ see on v. 305 above. Serv. is amusing: “‘Inque vicem, invicem: nam que’ vacat.” “Agit aequore toto” 5. 456.

[503] Expedire = to explain, as in G. 4. 149, A. 7. 40, &c. ‘Tanto’ for ‘tanton'’ Rom. and originally Gud.: Pal. and Gud. have the same mistake 10. 668. ‘Tanton'’ is confirmed here by Serv. ‘Motu:’ so G. 4. 68, “Regibus incessit magno discordia motu.

[504] Futuras, &c., destined to be in peace.

[505, 506] Ea prima, &c., the contest with Sucro first gave a check to the onward sweep of the Trojans. ‘Ea pugna’ =“pugna cum eo viro:” see on v. 468. For ‘ruentis’ the Verona fragm. has ‘furentis.’ “Ne forteruentisputes esse i. q. ‘fugientis,vetant vv. 547—553” Wagn. ‘Loco statuit’ = ‘made to stand where it was:’ ‘loco’ as in “stare locoG. 3. 84. Verona fragm. gives ‘morantis’ for ‘morantem,’ ‘moratum’ Serv., though his MSS. on v. 508 quote with ‘morantem.’ ‘Moratus’ Heyne, against almost all authority. The sense of ‘morantem’ is much better: Sucro does not detain Aeneas long: he is struck ‘qua fata celerrima,’ v. 507.

[507] Excipit in latus, he catches him with a blow in the side. ‘Latum’ Med. a m. p. “‘Qua fata celerrima:indicat cor: quo transfosso, vide an celerrima sint fata” Cerda. ‘Crudum ensem’ note on 10. 682. Heyne and Wagn. think, which is hardly likely, that ‘crudus’ = “cruentus.” For ‘celerrima’ the Verona fragm. has ‘cerrima’ (for ‘acerrima’?).

[508] “Transadigit costas” v. 276 above, without the second acc. ‘ensem.’ This double acc. after ‘transadigo’ follows the analogy of that after ‘transporto’ (6. 327 note). “Crudo ense” was the reading before Commelin. ‘Costas et cratis pectoris’ like “saxo atque ingenti fragmine montis” 9. 569. ‘Cratis pectoris’ is copied by Ov. M. 12. 370, “qua laterum cratem perrupit.” (Forb.)

[509] Deiectum 11. 642 note. Another Amycus (“vastator ferarum”) was killed by Turnus 9. 773. This one may perhaps be identical with the Amycus of 1. 221. A ‘Diores,’ son of Priam, has occurred 5. 297 (where see note), whom Heyne identifies, probably wrongly, with this one. The name Diores (the first syllable long) is Homeric (Il. 2. 622, &c.). Virg. is thinking of Il. 20. 460 foll., Αὐτὰρ Λαόγονον καὶ Δάρδανον, υἷε Βίαντος, Ἄμφω ἐφορμηθείς, ἐξ ἵππων ὦσε χαμᾶζε, Τὸν μὲν δουρὶ βαλών, τὸν δὲ ς χεδὸν ἄορι τύψας.

[510] Turnus dismounts to meet the enemy whom he has thrown from his horse. Wagn. has rightly removed the colon which was previously placed after ‘pedes.’ ‘Venientem,’ i.e. before he has reached him.

[512] “Rorantis sanguine cristas” 11. 8.

[513] Ille, Aeneas. ‘Talon’ and ‘Tanaim’ are suspected by Heyne, perhaps rightly, as having nothing Latin about them. Virg. does not often use the Greek ending in personal names of the second decl.: the only instances being apparently “Mnasylos” E. 6. 13, “Epeos” A. 2. 264, “ScorpiosG. 1. 35, “LageosG. 2. 93, and in acc. “Tityon” A. 6. 595, “Arcton” G. 1. 138. (Wagn. Q. V. 4. For the ending in ‘im’ see ib. 3.)

[514] “‘Maestumσκυθρωπόν” (Serv.). But this would rather be “tristem.” We have no clue to the reason why Onites is called ‘maestus.’ ‘Neci mittit’ like “demisere neci” 2. 85.

[515] Nomen Echionium Pal., with some support from two of Ribbeck's cursives, and so Serv., who says, “quidam male leguntnomine Echionium.” ‘Nomine Echionium’ Med., ‘nominechionium’ Rom. and Gud. Jahn adopts ‘nomine,’ but ‘nomen’ is far more likely to have been altered. There is a similar variation 3. 614. Serv. gives two explanations of ‘nomen Echionium:’ (1) “Thebana gloria” (Echion being founder of Thebes), (2) “genus, . . . . ut ostendatur eum Echionis esse et Peridiae filium:” the last of which is adopted by Heyne and Wagn. It is more likely that ‘nomen Echionium’ refers generally to the man's descent from Echion, his father's actual name being omitted: comp. 3. l. c., “Nomine Achemenides, Troiam genitore Adamasto . . . . profectus,” where the father's name is distinguished from that of the family. ‘Nomen’ Heyne says = “quoad nomen:” it is more probably in direct apposition to ‘Oniten,’ balancing ‘genus,’ comp. “Silvius Albanum nomen” 6. 763; “Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo” 1. 288. ‘Genus’ as in 7. 213, &c. The line is like Apollonius R. 1. 204,Λέρνου ἐπίκλησιν, γενεήν γε μὲν Ἡφαίστοιο”.

[516] Hinc Gud. originally for ‘hic,’ which = Turnus. ‘Fratres Lycia missos,’ probably, as Forb. says, Clarus and Themon, the brothers of Sarpedon, mentioned 10. 126. ‘Apollinis agris,’ epexegetical of ‘Lycia’ (comp. 4. 143, 346); it need not be taken specially of Patara or Myra. Peerlkamp (followed by Ribbeck) transposed vv. 515, 16: making ‘nomen Echionium,’ &c., apply to the Lycian brothers instead of to Onites, an arrangement which would be convenient, if it had any authority. It is perhaps slightly supported by the passage about the Lycians in Hdt. 1. 173 (where see Bähr), Ἓν δὲ τόδε ἴδιον νενομίκασι καὶ οὐδαμοῖσι ἄλλοισι συμφέρονται ἀνθρώπων: καλέουσι ἀπὸ τῶν μητέρων ἑωυτοὺς καὶ οὐκ ἀπὸ τῶν πατέρων: for (except in the case of goddesses) Virg. hardly ever mentions, in the course of his ordinary narrative, the name of a warrior's mother.

[517] Exosus does not seem to be used earlier than Virg.

[518] Lernae flumina, probably Lerna and the streams flowing into it: comp. Eur. Phoen. 125, Λερναῖα νάματα. Mr. Munro in a letter to the editor says “Lerna, at the present day, consists of a series of exceedingly deep natural canals of beautifully clear water, which might well be called ‘flumina.’ These are formed from a vast series of springs in that part of the plain of Argolis. I do not remember any visible ‘flumina’ which ran into them.” ‘Piscosae,’ to show his trade: comp. 4. 255, “Circum Piscosos scopulos humilis volat aequora iuxta” of the sea-bird.

[519] Ars of the craft of a fisherman Ov. M. 3. 586 (Heyne).

[520] Limina Med., as in Hor. Ep. 2. 8 (“superba civium Potentiorum limina”), followed doubtfully by Heyne. Wagn. is probably right in restoring ‘munera,’ which has the authority of the other MSS. and of Serv., though ‘limina’ would give a very good sense, in spite of his objection that the poor man would be as likely as any one else to be familiar with the thresholds of the rich. ‘Potentum munera’ must mean the “duties or burdens of the rich:” not (as Serv. and Heyne explain it) “the duties paid to the rich.” ‘Potentes’ like οἱ δυνατοί in Greek, the rich men: comp. 6. 843. ‘Tellure serebat’ like “sulco serentem” 6. 844 note. ‘Sedibat’ corrected into ‘sedebat’ Med. a m. p.

[521] Diversis partibus: so 10. 405 (note), “Ac velut, optato ventis aestate coortis, Dispersa inmittit silvis incendia pastor,” where the simile is applied differently. Comp. Il. 20. 490 foll., Ὡς δ᾽ ἀναμαιμάει βαθἔ ἄγκεα θεσπιδαὲς πῦρ Οὔρεος ἀζαλέοιο, βαθεῖα δὲ καίεται ὕλη . . . . Ὣς ὅγε πάντη θῦνε σὺν ἔγχεϊ, δαίμονι ἶσος &c. See also Il. 11. 155 foll. But the point here (as in Bk. 10) is that the fire is kindled on opposite sides of the wood.

[522] Ardentem Med. originally: ‘arentem’ is confirmed by Serv. ‘Virgulta sonantia lauro,’ a refinement for “virgulta sonantis lauri” or “virgulta sonantia lauri:” see on 6. 704. ‘Sonantia’ here = “crepitantia:” comp. Lucr. 6.152 foll., “Lauricomos ut si per montis flamma vagetur Turbine ventorum comburens impete magno: Nec res ulla magis quam Phoebi Delphica laurus Terribili sonitu flamma crepitante crematur.” The addition of ‘et virgulta’ makes the description more vivid.

[523] Comp. Il. 4. 452 foll., Ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε χείμαρ᾽ῥοι ποταμοί, κατ᾽ ὄρεσφι ῥέοντες, Ἐς μισγάγκειαν συμβάλλετον ὄβριμον ὕδωρ . . . . Ὣς τῶν μισγομένων γένετο ἰαχή τε φόβος τε: where the simile is applied much as here. But Virg.'s language is more like Il. 16. 391 foll., (ποταμοὶ) Εἰς ἅλα πορφυρέην μεγάλα στενάχουσι ῥέουσαι Ἐξ ὀρέων ἐπὶ κάρ: μινύθει δέ τε ἔργ᾽ ἀνθρώπων. Comp. also Il. 11. 492 foll. Virg. has combined the images of a fire and of a flood in 2. 304 foll. ‘Decursu rapido,’ &c.: the language is Lucretian: Lucr. 1.283, “Montibus ex altis magnus decursus aquai;” 288, “dat sonitu magno stragem,” which suggested Virg.'s ‘dant sonitum spumosi amnes.’ Comp. ib. 5. 946.

[524] ‘In aequora’ might be taken (with Wakefield on Lucr. 5.264) as = ‘on to the plain’ (πεδίονδε κάτεισιν, Il. 11. 492), but Virg. more probably means the sea: comp. Il. 16. 391 foll. quoted above.

[525] Suus Med. originally. “‘Populatus iter,postquam vastando sibi viam fecit,” Taubm., the construction being that of the cognate acc., like ‘ire viam,’ &c. Some inferior copies have ‘populatur.’ Serv. has a quaint comment on ‘non segnius’ and ‘fluctuat:’ “‘Non segniusad ignem retulit, quia segnis quasisine igne’ sit: ‘fluctuatautem ad amnes eum retulisse nulla dubitatio est.”

[526] Some inferior copies have ‘in proelia.’

[527] The language is again from Lucr. 3.297 (of lions), “Pectora qui fremitu rumpunt plerumque gementes, Nec capere irarum fluctus in pectore possunt.” But the context seems to be in favour of taking ‘rumpuntur pectora’ literally, not (with Heyne) metaphorically, ‘nescia vinci’ being emphatic; “breasts are torn that know not how to yield.” “Perfractaque quadrupedantum Pectora pectoribus rumpunt” 11. 614. ‘Nescius’ with inf. G. 2. 467., 4. 470: the construction does not seem to be older than the Augustan poets (Forc.).

[528] ‘In volnera itur:’ so Livy 26. 44, “In volnera ac tela ruunt.” Forb. comp. Ov. M. 9. 405.

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