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[399] Fugientem praeter: so ‘praeter’ is separated from its verb by Lucr. 4.388ea praeter creditur ire.

[400] Heyne takes ‘hoc spatium tantumque’ together, ‘this space and only so much,’ making ‘morae’ dative. But it is more natural to join ‘tantum’ with ‘morae,’ ‘hoc spatium’ being equivalent to ‘tantum morae.’ ‘Spatium’ is better referred to time than, with the later editors, to space, as if the meaning were, that Ilus' fate is delayed by so much space as is occupied by the body of Rhoeteus, a thought not true in itself and not naturally expressed by the words.

[401] Dirigere with dat. in the same sense 12. 488.

[402, 403] Medius intercipit like “medius occurrere” 1. 682. ‘Optume Teuthra:’ Τεύθραντ᾽ ἀντίθεον (a Greek) Il. 5. 705. Teuthras and Tyres seem to be mentioned to show that Pallas' precept and example are doing their work on his companions. ‘Cursu’ for ‘curru’ Gud. corrected.

[404] λακτίζων ποσὶ γαῖαν Od. 18. 99. Comp. v. 730 below. “Sternitur infelix Acron, et calcibus atram Tundit humum exspirans.” ‘Semianimis’ may be either nom. sing. or abl. pl., as Virg. does not elsewhere use the form “semianimus,” but, if we suppose the abl. to be meant, there would be a metrical reason for doing so here.

[405] The courage of the Arcadians, now combining into a head after it has been kindled here and there by Pallas, is compared to a fire in a wood, kindled in different points by a shepherd, and at length suddenly uniting its strength in the centre. The simile of fire in a wood is used by Hom. to illustrate the destructive fury of Agamemnon (Il. 11. 155), of Hector (Il. 15. 605), and of Achilles (Il. 20. 490), and is employed by Virg., in a slightly varied form, in two places, for a similar purpose (A. 2. 304., 12. 521). Its application here, to illustrate the rapid contagious spread of a feeling, is modern compared with Hom.'s treatment of it. ‘Optato’ = “ex voto” (Serv.). For similar adverbs formed from participles see Madv. § 198 a. obs. 2 note.

[406] Dispersa, 12. 521, “inmissi diversis partibus ignes.” The comm. hesitate to take ‘silvis’ literally: Heyne says it means “stipulas agri demessi” (comp. the metaphorical use of ‘silvaG. 1. 76), and Wagn. suggests that Virg. may have written ‘stipulis.’ Arist. Mir. Ausc. 87, ἐν τῇ Ἰβηρίᾳ λέγουσι τῶν δρυμῶν ἐμπρησθέντων ὑπὸ τινῶν ποιμένων καὶ τῆς γῆς διαθερμανθείσης ὑπὸ τῆς ὕλης φανερῶς ἀργύρῳ ῥεῦσαι τὴν χώραν, speaks of burning shrubs: Lucr. 5.1247 foll. of burning woods: “Ignis ubi ingentis silvas ardore cremarat” . . . . “quod inducti terrae bonitate volebant Pandere agros pinguis et pascua reddere rura.” The language in this and the preceding line is from Lucretius 1. 899—903: ‘ventis’ from “austris” v. 899, ‘coortis’ from v. 900, ‘silvis incendia’ from “creant incendia silvis” v. 903.

[407, 408] Mediis the middle parts: comp. 6. 131, “tenent media omnia silvae.” ‘Una’ adv. opp. to ‘dispersa:’ the flames from different parts join, ‘correptis mediis,’ and form a line. ‘Horrida acies Volcania’ = “horrida acies Volcani:” see on v. 391. ‘Acies Volcania’ something like “agmen aquarumG. 1. 322.

[409] “Victorque Sinon incendia miscet Insultans” 2. 329. ‘Ovantis’ carries out the idea of ‘victor.’ Comp. also G. 2. 307, “Per ramos victor perque alta cacumina regnat,” where the fire is the conqueror.

[410] Socium 5. 174 note.

[411, 412] Pallas Pal. originally, with some support from two of Ribbeck's cursives. Halaesus, v. 352 above. ‘Se colligere iIn arma’ of a man gathering himself up behind his shield, 12. 491. Cerda comp. Sen. de Tranq. 8. 6, “Habiliora sunt corpora pusilla, quae in arma sua contrahi possunt, quam quae superfunduntur” &c.

[413, 414] The rhythm is like that of Il. 21. 209, ἔνθ᾽ ἕλε Θερσίλοχόν τε Μύδωνά τε Ἀστύκυλόν τε.

[415] ‘In iugulum,’ against Halaesus' throat: comp. Il. 16. 738 foll. βάλε δ᾽ Ἕκτορος ἡνιοχῆα, . . . . Ἵππων ἡνἴ ἔχοντα, μετώπιον ὀξέϊ λᾶϊ, Ἀμφοτέρας δ᾽ ὀφρῦς σύνελεν λίφος, οὐδέ οἱ ἔσχεν Ὀστέον. Thoas in the Iliad is leader of the Aetolians.

[416] Il. 11. 97 ἐγκέφαλος δὲ Ἐνδὸν ἅπας πεπάλακτο: comp. Od. 12. 412.

[417] “‘Canens:’ alii ‘cavens’ legunt” Serv. ‘Cavens’ Hamb. pr. and some of Pierius' copies: and so Ribbeck. ‘Canens’ Med., Rom., Pal. (corrected for ‘canent’), and Gud. Virg. is thinking of Il. 2. 831 foll. υἷε δύω Μέροπος Περκωσίου, ὃς περὶ πάντων Ἤιδεε μαντοσύνας (did Virg. suppose that ᾔδεε came from ἀείδω?) οὺδὲ οὺς παῖδας ἔασκεν Στείχειν ἐς πόλεμον φθισήνορα: τὼ δέ οἱ οὔτε Πειθέσθην, Κῆρες γὰρ ἄγον μέλανος θανάτοιο. Comp. also Il. 5. 149 about the sons of Eurypylus, the interpreter of dreams: ib. 13. 666 about the son of the prophet Polyidus.

[418] “Canentia lumina: aut hypallage, proipse canens:aut physicam rem dicit: dicuntur enim pupillae mortis tempore albescere” Serv. The last is probably right, the word ‘canentia lumina’ describing the whitening of the ‘cornea’ (or cireular piece in front of the iris and pupil) which commonly takes place after death. In this case ‘canentia’ will be connected with ‘leto,’ and not at all with ‘senior:’ but it is also possible that Virg. may be referring to the “arcus senilis,” or white circle which sometimes (and more frequently in old than in young persons) forms round the “cornea” in lifetime. ‘Canenti’ Rom. originally. “Lumina solvit” of sleep, 5. 856 note. Θέλξας ὄσσε φαεινά of Poseidon slaying a man by the hand of Idomeneus, Il. 13. 435.

[419] “Iniecere manum Parcae: . . . . sermone usus est iuris: nammanus iniectiodicitur, quoties nulla iudicis auctoritate exspectata, rem nobis debitam vindicamus” Serv. The phrases ‘manum iniicere,’ ‘manus iniectio,’ to denote the process of haling a man into court, are as old as the Twelve Tables. We may comp. “Ἧισιν . . . . Ἀΐδης οὐκ ἐπὶ χεῖρα βαλεῖCallimachus Epig. 2. 5, (Wagn). ‘Sacrare,’ which is usually applied to a thing dedicated by a man to a god, is here, as in 12. 141, used of the act of a god to a mortal.

[421, 422] “Telum quod missile libro” v. 773 below. ‘Fortunam atque viam’ virtually ἓν διὰ δυοῖν. ‘Fortunam’ of a successful throw or hit, as 12. 920. ‘Viam’ v. 477 below, “viam clipei molita per oras.” “Cissea durum” v. 317 above: ‘duri’ here = tough or stubborn. It is better to put a colon after ‘Halaesi,’ so as to show the connexion of v. 423 with what precedes, ‘dahabebit’ being = “si dabis, habebit.” Comp. Juv. 1. 155, “Pone Tigellinum: taeda lucebis in illa:” though here, of course, the prayer gives a peculiar propriety to the imperative.

[423] Tua quercus might be taken as simply implying that there was actually an oak on the banks of the Tiber sacred to the river-god, as in 12. 766 we have an “oleaster” sacred to Faunus, on which sailors hung their garments. Comp. Livy 1. 10, “ibique ea (arma) cum ad quercum pastoribus sacram deposuisset,” and Pliny 17. 76. 2. But it is better to understand the words as = ‘an oak to be consecrated to thee:’ comparing for the expression “tua prima per auras Tela tenens supplex hostem fugit” 11. 558 (note), and for the thought 11. 5 foll. “Ingentem quercum decisis undique ramis Constituit . . . tibi, magne, tropaeum, Bellipotens.” Claudian in Rufin. 1. 339 (quoted by Cerda) “Si laetior adsit Gloria, vestita spoliis donabere quercu.

[424, 425] Halaesus uses his shield to protect Imaon, and so exposes his own breast to the spear of Pallas, Serv. strangely understands ‘texit’ of despoiling: comparing a lost passage of Plaut. “Ego hunc hominem hodie texam pallio:” his difficulty perhaps being, as Wagn. suggests, the construction of ‘dum’ with perf., for which see on v. 321. ‘Arcadio telo’ = the weapon of Pallas: “Euandrius ensis” v. 394 above. ‘Inermum’ 2nd decl. as in 12. 131. See on v. 571 below.

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