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[594] Concussit: so 4. 666, “concussam bacchatur Fama per urbem.

[595] Speculis Peerlkamp for ‘tectis’ (from 4. 586). Like Andromache in Homer, Amata has gone up to the roof of the palace.

[596] Incessi Pal., Med. a m. s., and so Eutychius 2. 14, Arusianus p. 242 L., and Serv. (on G. 4. 68), who explains it here by ‘invadi;’ ‘incedi’ Med. a m. p., ‘incensi’ Rom., ‘incendi’ Gud. with one of Ribbeck's cursives. ‘Incessi’ is proved (if proof be needed) by Statius' imitation of this passage (Theb. 11. 360), “Adgnovitque, nefas! iaculis et voce superba Tecta incessentem.” (Heyne).

[597] “‘Nusquam:’ sc. Aeneas subito cum suis urbem aggressus Turnum et Latinos aperto campo cum Tuscis et Arcadibus confligentes post se reliquit.” Gossr.

[598] What follows is in the spirit of the Greek tragedians, not in that of Homer. ‘Pugnae certamine,’ as in 11. 780: comp. ἀγὼν μάχης (Soph. Trach. 20). ‘In certamina’ Pal., and so originally Gud. and another of Ribbeck's cursives. Rom. has ‘a certamine.’ ‘Credit exstinctum:’ “quia non putabat Turnum civitatem oppugnari passurum fuisse si viveret.” Serv.

[600] “O Latio caput horum et caussa malorum” 11. 361. The use of ‘crimen’ here for ‘guilty cause’ is hard to parallel: “crimina belli” 7. 339 may perhaps be compared. “Ipsi tempus fore quo crimina et innoxios discerneret,” Tac. Ann. 1. 55.

[601] The picture here is quite in accordance with the character of Amata as given in Book 7. ‘Per maestum furorem,’ perhaps an imitation of the Greek δἰ ὀργῆς, &c. An inferior artist would have given Amata's speech.

[602] Moritura, bent on death: so v. 55 above.

[603] “Sane sciendum quod cautum fuerat in pontificalibus libris, ut qui laqueo vitam finisset, insepultus abiiceretur. Unde bene aitinformis leti,quasi mortis infamissimae,” Serv., who quotes a passage from Varro to the same effect, “suspendiosis, quibus iusta fieri ius non sit.” The cases of Iocasta (Od. 11. 278, Soph. O. R. 126 foll.) and Phaedra (Eur. Hipp. 802) were doubtless in Virg.'s mind: Heyne also cites that of Clite in Apollonius R. (1. 1063). According to Fabius Pictor, Amata starved herself (Serv.). The expression ‘nodum informis leti’ is imitated from Euripides (Hipp. 802), βρόχον κρεμαστὸν ἀγχόνης ἀνήψατο.

[604] Misere Med. originally, and so Gud. ‘Accepere’ as in 7. 47, “Hunc Fauno genitum . . . accipimus.

[605] Flavos crines Med., Pal., Rom., Gud., and the rest of Ribbeck's copies. But according to Serv., “antiqua lectio floros habuit . . . Probus sic adnotavit: ‘Neotericum erat flavos, ergo bene floros: nam sequituret roseas laniata genas.” The epithet ‘florus,’ only preserved in later Latin in the proper name, was found, according to Serv., in Attius, “nam flori crines vide ut propexi iacent” (v. 255, Ribbeck); in Pacuvius (v. 19, Ribbeck), “cervicum floros disperdite crines,” and also in Enn. Add Naev. v. 50, “Ut videam Volcani opera haec flammis fieri flora.” In spite therefore of the want of MS. authority Ribbeck is probably right in restoring ‘floros’ to the text. The archaism would be quite in Virg.'s manner; and it is hard to conceive that ‘floros’ could have crept in as a correction for ‘flavos,’ while the converse is very likely. The passages in which errors have crept into the text of Virgil from the conjectures of the grammarians or Serv., quoted by Wagn. Q. V. 16. 6, are quite of a different kind. The expression ‘flori crines’ may be compared with Hom., κόμας ὑακινθίνῳ ἄνθει ὁμοίας, Od. 6. 231., 23. 158, though ‘floros’ would not like this refer to a definite colour, but to general brightness.

[606] “Mulieres genas ne radunto,” was a command of the twelve tables: Cic. Legg. 2. 25, 64: “Mulier faciem ne carpito” are the words as given by Serv. here. Hence ‘furit’ in the next line is appropriate. ‘Tum cetera,’ &c. ἐπὶ δὲ στενάχοντο γυναῖκες, Il. 22. 515. ‘Rosea’ Med. originally.

[607] Latae, which is given by Med. a m. p. with Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cursives, may be a mere mistake for ‘late,’ as in G. 3. 477 (comp. Med. a m. p. in G. 1. 319., 4. 30, 359), and it would therefore be hazardous to introduce it into the text: yet the adjective would be more delicate here than the adverb: comp. 2. 487 (note), “penitusque cavae plangoribus aedes Femineis ululant.” Heins. prefers this reading, which Heyne thought “haud dubie vitiosa.” ‘Plangoribus’ might here, as in 4. 668 (note), be taken of the beating of the breast.

[608] “‘Hinc:’ i. e. de domo regia; ‘infelix fama,rerum infelicium nuntia, utinfelix vates’” (3. 246) Serv.

[609] “Demittere animum,” opp. to “tollere animum,” a phrase current from Lucilius downwards. “Victi debilitantur animosque demittunt” Cic. Fin. 5. 15, 42. ‘Scissa veste:’ so Aeneas rends his clothes, 5. 685 (note).

[610] “‘Attonituset privatis et publicis luctibus” Serv. ‘Factis’ for ‘fatis’ the MSS. of Arusianus p. 215 L.

[611] See note on 10. 844. ‘Perfusa’ Med. originally.

[612, 613] These two lines, which with the exception of ‘ante’ in the first and ‘ultro’ in the second, are identical with 11. 471, 472, are omitted here in all the best MSS. Heyne (followed by Ribbeck) struck them out of the text. Wagn. restored them chiefly on the ground which he seems to have made sure in his Excursus on the passage, that Virgil seldom allows a participle to end a line which completely closes the sense. But a canon of this kind cannot be safely allowed to override the testimony of MSS. They are therefore bracketed in the text.

[614-649] ‘Turnus hears the tumult and prepares for his fate.’

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