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[691] Furere of unrestrained slaughter 10. 545.

[692] Turbare of throwing ranks into confusion above v. 409. It is doubtful whether ‘perfertur’ is i. q. “perfert se,” or whether we are to take ‘nuntius’ of tidings: see on 4. 237. The latter however is supported by passages in other authors, e. g. Cic. Pro Lig. 3, “C. Pansa mihi nuntium perferente;” Id. Pro Balbo 28, “Nolite hunc illi acerbum nuntium velle perferri.

[693] Nova, following on the success of Ascanius. “Superbum Caede nova” 10. 515.

[694] Deserit inceptum he breaks off what he was employed on, his course of carnage outside the wall. So Aeneas, 12. 699, “opera omnia rumpit” to confront Turnus.

[695] Perhaps Virg. may have thought of Catull. 62 (64). 85, “Magnanimum ad Minoa venit sedesque superbas.

[696] The name Antiphates is from Hom., where it is borne by the king of the Laestrygons. “Se matutinus agebat” 8. 465: see on 6. 337.

[697] Thebana, from Thebe in Cilicia (Il. 1. 366., 6. 415), as Turnebus rightly takes it. “Supposita de matre nothos” 7. 283. ‘Nothum’ with gen. on the analogy of “filius.” “Altus Orodes” 10. 737, where as here it seems i. q. “magnus.” It may include the notion of physical greatness (“ingens Sarpedon” 1. 99), but this does not appear to be the whole account of it.

[698] Cornus of a cornel javelin 12. 267.

[699] “Aera per tenerum” Lucr. 2. 146. ‘Tenuem,’ the reading before Heins., is in none of Ribbeck's MSS. ‘Stomacho’ seems to mean the stomach in our sense, not the gullet, as in Il. 17. 47.

[700] Abit like “transabiit” above v. 432. ‘Atri volneris’ clearly goes with ‘specus,’ not, as Heyne and Forb. take it, with ‘undam,’ though Stat. Theb. 8. 748 has “volneris unda.” ‘Atri’ combines the notions of the darkness of the cavity and the blackness of the blood. ‘Alti,’ the conj. of Price on Appul. M. p. 374, preferred by Peerlkamp, would only be less poetical.

[701] Tepescit like “tepefacta” above v. 419.

[702] Manu not of hand to hand fighting opposed to darting, as Serv. thinks, but generally, as in v. 592 above, as v. 704 seems to show that the javelin was used.

[703] “Animisque frementem” 12. 371.

[704] Forb. comp. Justin 39. 4, “spiritum non fato sed parricidio dedit,” which seems to show that ‘iaculo’ is here abl., not, as Wagn. takes it, dat. With the sense Cerda comp. Il. 9. 545, οὐ μὲν γάρ κ᾽ ἐδάμη παύροισι βροτοῖσιν, with the expression, 11. 568, “neque ipse manus feritate dedisset,” where as here the construction is elliptical, there “neque dedisset [si accepissent],” here ‘neque dedisset [si iaculum missum esset].

[705] “The ‘falarica’ or ‘phalarica’ was the spear of the Saguntines, and was impelled by the aid of twisted ropes: it was large and ponderous, having a head of iron a cubit in length and a ball of lead at its other end: it sometimes carried flaming pitch and tow,” Dict. A. ‘Hasta:’ comp. Livy 21. 8. The weapon here is evidently thrown by the hand, which, as Serv. says, enhances the notion of Turnus' strength. Non. p. 555 quotes along with this line one from Ennius (inc. fr. 72) “quae valide veniunt falarica missa,” out of which the editors have made “quae valido veniunt contorta falarica missu;” but the conj. is a bold one, nor can it be established that Virg. imitated the line. Serv. and Non. derive the word from “falae,” towers, as the weapon was used in sieges, which doubtless accounts for Virg. introducing it here.

[706] Duo taurea terga, a shield with two folds of bulls' hide.

[707] Duplici squama et auro hendiadys, the cuirass being “bilix” (12. 375: see on 3. 467), with double rows of gold chain or quilted work. “Squamis auroque” 8. 436. The ablatives seem to qualify ‘fidelis,’ though they might be taken with ‘sustinuit’ or constructed as descriptive abls. with ‘lorica.

[709] Non. p. 196 and Serv. seem right in taking ‘clipeum’ as neuter (a form for which see Forc.), so as to express the Homeric ἀράβησε δὲ τεύχἐ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ. Jalius Sabinus and Burm. interpret “ipse ingens intonat super clipeum.

[710] Pal., Gud., and three other of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘qualis,’ the reading before Wagn., who remarks that ‘falis’ agrees better with ‘sic’ v. 712. ‘Ecboico Baiarum in litore’ like “Euboicis Cumarum oris” 6. 2 note, Baiae being near Cumae. Virg. draws a simile from the practice of his own time; not a usual thing with him. For these erections at Baiae comp. Hor. 2 Od. 18. 20 foll., 1 Ep. 1. 83 foll. ‘Quondam’ in a simile G. 4. 261 note.

[711] Pila may have its ordinary sense of a pillar, in which case it is probably intended as the foundation of some building. Comp. Suet. Claud. 20 (speaking of the harbour at Ostia), “congestis pilis superposuit altissimam turrim.” “Iactis in altum molibus” Hor. 3 Od. 1. 34. ‘Ante,’ as Wagn. remarks, shows the labour that has been spent on the masonry.

[712] Sic repeats ‘talis:’ comp. Hor. 1 Od. 16. 7, 8, “non Liber aeque, non acuta Sic geminant Corybantes aera.” ‘Ruinam trahit’ 2. 465 note.

[714] “Exsultantque vada, atque aestu miscentur arenae” 3. 557. Virg. may have thought of Soph. Ant. 590, κυλίνδει βυσσόθεν κελαινὰν θῖνα. Some MSS., including originally one of Ribbeck's cursives, have ‘tolluntur.

[715] The neighbouring islands feel the shock. Prochyta (Juv. 3. 5) may be called ‘alta’ as a rocky island (see on 3. 76), or ‘alta’ may go with ‘tremit,’ which seems more likely.

[716] Virg. has identified Pithecusa or Aenaria with the Homeric Ἄριμα (ὄρη), which he calls ‘Inarime,’ apparently mistaking Il. 2. 783, εἰν Ἀρίμοις, ὅθι φασὶ Τυφωέος ἔμμεναι εὐνάς. Homer's mountains were variously identified, some placing them in Cilicia, some in Mysia or Lydia, some in Syria, while Strabo p. 626 C says that others made them the same as Pithecusa, referring perhaps to Virg. Pindar Pyth. 1. 18 foll. had connected Typhoeus' or Typhon's punishment with Aetus, Pherecydes, cited by Schol. on Apoll. R. 2. 1210, with Pithecusa, so that the transference of the Homeric name was natural enough. For the identification of Homeric localities with Italy and its neighbourhood comp. 7. 10 note. Other legends connected these islands specially with Aeneas, Prochyta being named from a kinswoman of his, Aenaria, the place where his fleet landed. See Lewis, vol. 1, pp. 324, 325. The form ‘Inarime’ is used not only by the poets but by Pliny 3. 6. Cerda defends Virg. against the charge of ignorance in employing it, contending that Hom. probably wrote Εἰναρίμοις, and maintaining that in any case Virg. had a right to combine the words: “quod ius poeticum, si hoc non est?

[717-777] ‘The Rutulians take heart. Pandarus shuts the gate, shutting in Turnus, whom he encounters and is killed. Turnus makes a great slaughter within the encampment.’

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