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[791] Optime Rom., and so Med. corrected for ‘optimae.’ “Optima: aliioptimelegunt,” Serv. With ‘mortis durae casum,’ Wagn. comp. Cic. De Sen. 19, “Quin etiam aetas illa multo plures quam nostra mortis casus habet.” Similarly Catull. 21 (23). 11, “casus alios periculorum.” ‘Tuae’ is borrowed from ‘tua’ for ‘mortis.

[792] This line has been generally misunderstood, from a notion that ‘vetustas’ could mean posterity. No instance, however, has been adduced where it bears this sense: in Cic. Mil. 35, “de me, inquit, nulla umquam obmutescet vetustas,” the meaning is that distance of time shall never cause Milo not to be spoken of: antiquity shall never make him obsolete: in Prop. 4. 1. 23, “omnia post obitum fingit maiora vetustas,” the meaning is that the antiquity of a thing makes it appear greater. Similarly ‘fidem latura’ has been understood as i. q. “fidem habitura,” when it should rather = “fidem allatura,” or “factura.” The words can only signify ‘if any degree of antiquity shall be able to impart credibility to so great a deed:’ i. e. if a deed, which if reported of modern times would be justly disbelieved, should be thought credible because it is sufficiently ancient. Virg. means to say that the deed was only possible in antiquity, and could not have been performed in modern times. This need not be a mere sentimental enthusiasm for the past, as the poet may naturally have thought of what he had himself lived through in the days of the second Triumvirate. Thus we need not discuss the admissibility of taking ‘tanto operi’ of Virg.'s own work, which cannot be reconciled with the rest of the line as properly understood. Serv.'s note seems to show that some doubt about the sense of the words was entertained in his time: but his words are not clear.

[794, 795] Inutilis 2. 647. The form of words ‘inutilis inque ligatus’ is Lucretian: comp. Lucr. 1.452 (and Munro's note), “seiungi seque gregari:” ib. 651 “disiectis disque supatis,” 2. 1104 “indignos inque merentis.” Virg. has “ignaram . . . Inque salutatam” 9. 288. The two clauses ‘pedem referens’ and ‘inutilis’ &c. are not strictly co-ordinate: see on 2. 86. ‘Inimicum,’ the spear of his enemy, like “inimicaque nomina figi” 11. 84.

[796] Proripuit Med., Gud., with two of Ribbeck's cursives: ‘prorupit’ Pal., Rom. The former is adopted by Wagn. and Forb., the latter rightly by Heyne and Ribbeck. The distinction given by Heyne seems to be the right one: “proripuit fugientis est, non in pugnam prodeuntis:” see Forc. Contrast “densos prorumpit in hostes” v. 379 above with “quo proripis, inquit, Quem fugis?” 5. 741. “Se inmiscuit armisG. 4. 245., 11. 815.

[797] Dextrae Pal. corrected, with some inferior copies: and so apparently Serv. ‘Dextram’ Rom.: ‘dextra’ was first restored by Heins. See on v. 95. The other readings would be just intelligible, ‘dextrae’ being gen. after ‘Aeneae;’ ‘dextram’ co-ordinate with ‘mucronem.’ With ‘adsurgentis’ comp. 9. 749., 11. 284 (note). “Plagamque ferenti” 12. 299.

[798] Subigit Med. ‘Ipsum,’ Aeneas.

[799] Clamore sequuntur 9. 636.

[800] For the subj. ‘abiret,’ implying that they intended to cover his retreat, see note on G. 4. 457, and comp. Ov. M. 3. 364, 365, “Illa deam longo prudens sermone tenebat, Dum fugerent Nymphae.” ‘Parma:’ see below, 817.

[801] Proturbant, try to drive off: comp. 9. 441, “Quem circum glomerati hostes hinc comminus atque hinc Proturbant.” Med. has ‘perturbant’ corrected from ‘pertumbant.’

[802] Virg. must have had in his mind Il. 16. 359 foll. δ᾽ ἰδρείῃ πολέμοιο Ἀσπίδι ταυρείῃ κεκαλυμμένος ευρέας ὤμους, Σκέπτετ᾽ ὀϊστῶν τε ῥοῖζον καὶ δοῦπον ἀκόντων: a passage followed by two stormsimiles, to which however, beyond the suggestion of a similar comParison in this context, his debt is not great. The first of these begins Il. 16. 364, the second ib. 384. ‘Furit’ at the attacks as well as at the removal of his enemy. ‘Tectus tenet se’ like “infert se saeptus nebula” 1. 439.

[803] Comp. 4. 120, “Nigrantem commixta grandine nimbum . . . . Infundam:” 5. 458, “Quam multa grandine nimbi Culminibus crepitant.

[804] Diffugit, the perf., as so often in Virg.'s descriptions: comp. G. 1. 330, “fugere ferae.” The husbandman has fled and the traveller is in shelter, as Wunderl. remarks. Wagn. and Ribbeck are offended at the rhyme ‘arator’ and ‘viator:’ but Virg. indulges in such assonances occasionally: see 4. 255, 256.

[805] Agricola is more general than ‘arator:’ so it is contrasted with “messorG. 1. 316. ‘Arte,’ the reading of Med., Pal., Rom., and Gud., though giving but a poor sense, was approved by Heins.: ‘arce,’ obviously the true reading, is found in Canon. Moret. pr. and some other inferior copies. Serv. (from a mixture of glosses) explains both readings: “Quod scilicet seperitea tempestate defendunt: tuta autem arce, quae tuetur.” ‘Arce’ generally for a place of defence, the nature of it being specified in the next line, “Aut amnis ripis” &c.

[806] Amnis ripis: the banks are deep, and he can shelter under them.

[807] Serv. wished to punctuate after ‘pluit’ and take ‘in terris’ with ‘exercere diem,’ thinking that ‘dum pluit in terris’ would be an archaism, though he knew that it comes from Lucretius (6. 630, “Cum pluit in terris et venti nubila portant”). ‘Possit’ Med. a m. p. and originally Rom.

[808] Exercere diem is like “noctemque diemque fatigant” 8. 94 note.

[809] Omnis is restored rightly by Wagn. for ‘omnem,’ which is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. ‘Detinet’ for ‘detonet’ Med., Gud., and Pal. corrected. ‘Omnem’ may have been due to this mistake: ‘omnis’ having been taken for acc. pl. after ‘detinet,’ and then altered into ‘omnem.’ With ‘nubem belli’ comp. Tac. H. 3. 2, “Nunc sedecim alarum coniuncta signa pulsu sonituque et nube ipsa operient.Ἐπεὶ πολέμοιο νέφος περὶ πάντα καλύπτει Ἕκτωρ Il. 17. 243, imitated by Pindar Nem. 10. 16, Μάντιν Οἰκλείδαν πολέμοιο νέφος. ‘Dum detonet,’ waiting till its thunder ceases: so Livy 30. 39, “stetissetque ibi dum reliquum tempestatis exsaeviret.” The force of ‘de’ in ‘detonare’ is the same as in “desaevio,” “defungor,” &c.

[810] Aeneas probably repeats the name of Lausus.

[811] With the voc. ‘moriture’ comp. “Huc periture veni, capias ut digna Camillae Praemia” 11. 856. See also 2. 283, v. 327 above, 12. 947. ‘Moriturus,’ as always, of certain death.

[812] Fallet Pal. and originally Gud.: “fortasse recte,” Ribbeck says. ‘Fallit incautum,’ betrays you into rashness.

[813] ‘Exultans’ Med. second reading. Lausus, after covering his father's retreat, is defying Aeneas: comp. v. 643 above.

[815] Pal. has ‘lina,’ which is given by Gud. as a variant in the margin. ‘Fila’ Med. and Rom. ‘Fila legere,’ to gather up the threads, and pass them through the fingers. Ov. F. 3. 462, of Ariadne, “Quae dedit ingrato fila legenda viro” (Peerlk.). Comp. Prop. 5. 4. 42, “Cum patuit lecto stamine torta via.” The emphatic word is ‘extrema.’ Comp. Theocr. 1. 139 (of the dying Daphnis), τά γε μὰν λίνα πάντα λελοίπει Ἐκ Μοιρᾶν. ‘Exigit’ v. 682 above.

[816] Recondit v. 387 above.

[817] Transiit Med., Pal., and Gud. ‘Transilit’ (hardly appropriate of a swordthrust) two of Ribbeck's cursives: which he adopts: see Excursus on G. 2. 81. The ‘parma’ was the light shield of the Roman velites: see Livy 31. 35., 38. 21, &c. Rom. has ‘media’ for ‘levia,’ and ‘minaci’ for ‘minacis.’ ‘Levia arma minacis,’ slight arms for a mien so threatening. ‘Parmam . . . levia arma’ like χρυσὸς . . . δῶρα θεοῖο Il. 21. 165. Comp. 8. 729, “clipeum Volcani, dona parentis.

[818] Molli auro v. 138 above.

[819] Sinum Pal., Rom., Med. a m. s., Gud. originally. ‘Sinus’ Med. a m. p., Gud. corrected: this might easily be due to the initial s of ‘sanguis.Ατὰρ μέλαν αἷμα . . . Κόλπον ἐνέπλησεν Il. 20. 470. ‘Vita,’ Virg.'s equivalent for Hom.'s ψυχή.

[820] Ψυχὴ δ᾽ ἐκ ῥεθέων πταμένη Ἀϊδόσδε βεβήκει, Ὃν πότμον γοόωσα Il. 16. 856 &c.

[821, 822] Voltum the look (“imago animi voltus” Cic. de Orat. 3. 59), ‘ora’ the face simply: “modis pallentia miris” of the paleness of spectres Lucr. 1.123, “of which Virg. has at least four imitations” (G. 1. 477, A. 1. 354., 7. 89, and this passage), Munro ad loc. Notice the word ‘Anchisiades,’ which is here intended to recall Aeneas' love to his own father, as Cerda saw.

[823] Ingemuit graviter miserans Med. ‘Graviter’ goes with ‘ingemuit’ as in v. 789. “Dextram labenti tendit inermem” 11. 672.

[824] See on 9. 294, from which this line is nearly repeated. ‘Strinxit’ Med. (probably a reminiscence of that passage), and so Heins. and Heyne. Wakefield and Jahn rightly recalled ‘subiit.’ “Subiit cari genitoris imago” 2. 560.

[825] “Quae vobis, quae digna, viri, pro laudibus istis Praemia posse rear solvi?” says Aletes to Nisus and Euryalus 9. 252. ‘Miserande puer’ 6. 882, of Marcellus. ‘Laudes’ v. 282 above (note).

[826] Pius emphatic here: see on v. 822.

[827] Quibus laetatus = ‘quibus laetatus es:’ see on v. 162 above. Ribbeck writes ‘laetatu's:’ see on 1. 237. ‘Habe tua,’ keep as your own.

[828] Si qua est ea cura can hardly mean anything but “si quid eam rem curas:” the doubt being whether the shades care for such things. So perhaps “si qua est ea gloria” 7. 4. With ‘ea cura’ we may then comp. “ea signa” (= “eius rei signa”) 2. 171. For the general sense see Soph. El. 355, ὥστε τῷ τεθνηκότι Τιμὰς προσάπτειν, εἴ τις ἔστ᾽ ἐκεῖ χάρις. Schrader conj. ‘teque parenti (Manibus . . . . cura) remitto,’ comparing 4. 34, “Id cinerem aut Manis credis curare sepultos.” But the same sense is better brought out by the MS. reading. On ‘Manes’ and ‘cinis’ see on 4. 34, 427, and again comp. Soph. El. 1159, σποδόν τε καὶ σκιὰν ἀνωφελῆ. The feeling which sometimes prevented a victorious enemy from spoiling his foe is illustrated by the story of Achilles and Eetion, Il. 6. 417, Οὐδέ μιν ἐξενάριξε, σεβάσσατο γὰρ τόγε θυμῷ.

[829] With the thought comp. 11. 688, “Nomen tamen haud leve patrum Manibus hoc referes, telo cecidisse Camillae.

[830, 831] Increpare or ‘increpitare’ is specially used of chiding delay: G. 4. 138, Pers. 5. 127. ‘Ultro,’ implying that they made no movement till spoken to. ‘Cunctantis socios,’ not improbably Lausus' comrades: comp. v. 841 below. In that case we must suppose that they were cowed at seeing their young chief fall, though before they had assailed Aeneas from a distance. Aeneas then bids them approach and take the body. Thus the whole will form a forcible contrast to Turnus' language to the Arcadians about Pallas, v. 491 above. ‘Ipsum’ to distinguish Lausus from the rest: perhaps we may comp. its use in E. 3. 3.

[832] The mode of expression is like Ov. M. 7. 845, “Semianimem et sparsas foedantem sanguine vestis.” ‘De more:’ “antiquo scilicet more, quo viri sicut mulieres conponebant capillos: quod verum esse et statuae nonnullae antiquorum docent, etiam personae, quas in Tragoediis videmus similes in utroque sexu, quantum ad ornatum pertinet capitis.” Serv. But it may be doubted whether the words mean more than ‘regularly,’ opp. to “sine more,” “sine lege.” Comp. the “conpositi crines” of the youth Aristaeus, G. 4. 417. “With bright hair Dabbled with blood,” Shaksp. Rich. III. 1. 4.

[833-908] ‘Mezentius, hearing of the death of his son, goes to meet Aeneas, and is slain in combat with him.’

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