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[373] Dictis seems to be instr. abl. with ‘experta.’ “Virtute experiamur” Enn. A. 6. fr. 13.

[374] Contra stare, fixed in opposition.

[375] Malum serpentis, not a perphrasis for “serpens malus,” but rather the poison of the serpent. ‘Malum’ of a disease, Ov. 1 Pont. 4 (3). 18 (Forc.), so here of poison. ‘Furialis,’ of the nature of a Fury, recurs v. 415.

[376] Tum vero after a previous clause 5. 720. “Tum vero infelix” 4. 450. ‘Monstris,’ phantasies. Comp. 3. 583, “inmania monstra Perferimus,” the sights and sounds of Aetna, ib. 307, “magnis exterrita monstris,” the sudden apparition of Aeneas to Andromache.

[377] ‘Sine more,’ wildly, breaking through all decency. Comp. 8. 635 and note on 5. 694. ‘Inmensam’ as applied to Laurentum is only a part of the general amplification, meaning little more than when it is said of Dido 4. 68, “tota vagatur urbe furens.” Thus we do not need Heyne's ‘inmensum,’ which Ribbeck adopts, or Burm.'s ‘incensam,’ ingenious as both are. ‘Lymphatus’ is explained by Varro L. L. 7. 87, “‘lymphata’ dicta a ‘lympha;’ ‘lympha’ a ‘nympha’ . . . In Graecia commota mente quos ‘nympholemptos’ appellant ab eo ‘lymphatos’ dixerunt nostri.”

[378] Heyne thinks it certain that this simile is taken from some lost Greek poet, a singular way of vindicating Virg.'s taste at the expense of his originality. The ‘turbo’ or “turben” (top) was the Greek ῥόμβος or βέμβιξ. Comp. Callim. Epigr. 1. 9, and also Tibull. 1. 5. 3, “Namque agor, ut per plana citus sola verbere turben Quem celer assueta versat ab arte puer.” ‘Torto verbere,G. 3. 106 note. ‘Quondam,G. 4. 261 note.

[379] Magno,vacua atria,’ ‘intenti ludo exercent’ all denote the frenzy and wideness of Amata's wanderings. ‘Atria’ also suggests patrician boys, and lends dignity to the simile. “Vacua atria” 2. 528.

[380] Exercere aliquem without a modal abl. or other case G. 1. 210. ‘Habena’ of a thong 9. 587: specially of a lash Hor. 2 Ep. 2. 15. Rom. has ‘habenis.

[381] We may take ‘spatiis’ either as the circles on the ground (as it were a circular race-course, ‘spatia’) or of the motion of the top. Comp. G. 2. 541 note. ‘Supra,’ as Heins. says, denotes the bending of the ring of boys in wonderment over the top. The reading before his time, ‘turba,’ does not appear in any of Ribbeck's MSS. ‘Inscia’ goes closely with ‘stupet,’ but is nevertheless coupled with ‘inpubes:’ see on 2. 86.

[382] Buxum, of a top, Pers. 3. 51, perhaps in imitation of Virg. Comp. the use of “aurum,” “ebur,” &c.

[383] Dryden supposed the subject of ‘dant’ to be ‘pueri,’ ‘plagae’ being dat. sing., “And lend their little souls at every stroke;” but Trapp properly corrected him, pointing out that ‘plagae’ is nom. pl. It may still be questioned whether the meaning is that the lashes give life to the top, or that the exercise of whipping inspirits the boys and makes them go on. ‘Illo’ may be ‘turbine,’ ‘cursu segnior’ like “segnior ubereG. 2. 275; or ‘cursu illo’ may = “illius cursu,” as in the instances mentioned on 2. 171. 8. 414 is perhaps slightly in favour of the latter.

[384] “Populosque ferocis” 1. 263, also of the nations of Italy. Here the epithet seems to point partly to the insensibility of Amata, who braves insult, partly to the contagion which her fury is likely to spread among the Latins.

[385] This description of Bacchic orgies and frenzy is altogether Greek, and suggested by some Greek work, such as the Bacchae of Euripides. The Bacchanalia were introduced into Rome from Southern Italy through Etruria, but their celebration leading to dreadful excesses, they were suppressed throughout Italy by a decree of the Senate B.C. 186. See Livy 39. 8 foll. Perhaps Virg.'s ‘nefas’ may be a touch of Roman feeling. Comp. 4. 301 foll., where Dido is compared to a Bacchant. Med. a m. p. and one of Ribbeck's cursives originally have ‘in silvis.’ Rom. and some others have ‘nomine,’ which might stand; but ‘numine’ is better. Serv. thinks ‘simulato’ means delusion, not conscious pretence, appealing to v. 405 below: but Virg. doubtless means that the pretended enthusiasm eventually took real hold on her. Ov. M. 6. 594 (of Procne) is, as usual, more explicit, “furiisque agitata doloris, Bacche, tuas simulat.

[386] Rom. reads ‘exorsa’ unmetrically (according to Ribbeck: Pierius reports ‘maiorem exorsa’). Schrader conj. ‘ausa.

[387] Frondosus of mountains 5. 252, G. 1. 282.

[388] Schrader wished to read ‘taedasve,’ but such exactness would be rather out of place here.

[390] Mollis, from the conical bunch of vine or ivy leaves, with grapes or berries, in which the thyrsus ended. Dict. A. ‘Thyrsus.’ So E. 5. 31, “foliis lentas intexere mollibus hastas.” Or ‘mollis’ may itself be i. q. “lentus.” Amata's words in oratione recta would be: “Tu solus virgine dignus; etenim tibi mollis sumit thyrsos.” She represents her daughter in the act of devoting herself to Bacchus.

[391] Choros seems to be the reading of the bulk of MSS., including Rom. and Gud., the latter of which originally had ‘chorus.’ ‘Choro’ is the first reading of Med., ‘s’ having been afterwards added, and of some others, including Canon. Heyne restored ‘choro,’ and his successors have followed him. The error arose from the first letter of the next word (see on G. 2. 219) and was perpetuated by those who did not understand the construction. ‘Te lustrare choro,’ Bacchus being the choragus, and the Bacchants dancing round him. Soph. Ant. 1150, Προφάνηθ᾽ Ναξίαις σαῖς ἅμα περιπόλοις Θυίαισιν, αἵ σε μαινόμεναι πάννυχοι Χορεύουσι τὸν ταμίαν Ἴακχον. Also Hor. 2 Od. 19., where “carmina docentem” means teaching the chorus, as a choragus. So “lustrare choreis” 10. 224, Prop. 3. 1. 1. For ‘sacrum tibi pascere crinem’ comp. Eur. Bacch. 494, Ἱερὸς πλόκαμος, τῷ θεῷ δ᾽ αὐτὸν τρέφω. ‘Pascere’ for “nutrire” or “alere” Hor. 2 S. 3. 35, “pascere barbam.

[392] When the matrons hear, they are caught by the contagion. ‘Pectora’ is the first reading of two of Ribbeck's cursives.

[393] “Idem omnis simul ardor habet” 4. 581. It matters little whether ‘quaerere’ be constructed with ‘ardor’ (see note on G. 1. 213) or with ‘agit’ (vv. 239, 240 above).

[394] Deseruere, implying the instantaneousness of the action. Comp. G. 1. 330. ‘Ventis dant colla comasque,’ they let their hair flow unconfined about their necks. See v. 403, and comp. 1. 319, “dederatque comam diffundere ventis.” For the custom of unbinding the hair in religious enthusiasm see 3. 370.

[395] Ast aliae, &c. This seems to be the height of the Bacchic frenzy, and so distinguished from what precedes. But he may merely be imitating Catull. 62 (64). 256 foll., where the actions of the Bacchants are similarly distributed. Ribbeck transposes this and the next verse, after Peerlkamp, who wishes also to read ‘illae’ from a correction in Med., distinguishing ‘illae’ from ‘ipsa.’ ‘Tremulis,’ as if under the influence of wine; they have no command of their voices.

[396] Pampineas hastas: comp. Ov. M. 3. 667, “Pampineis agitat velatam frondibus hastam.” Bacchus was said to have converted the thyrsi into dangerous weapons by concealing an iron point in the conical head of leaves. So Catull. l. c. “tecta quatiebant cuspide thyrsos.” But ‘hastas’ need only be spearlike wands: Θύρσον τε δοὺς εἰς χεῖρα, κίσσινον βέλος Eur. Bacchae 25. ‘Pellibus’ are the skins of fawns, νεβρίδες, which the Bacchants wore.

[397] Soph. Ant. 1126, Σὲ δ᾽ ὑπὲρ διλόφοιο πέτρας στέροψ ὄπωπε Λιγνύς. The torch however in the hand of Amata has a further reference to ‘natae Turnique hymenaeos.’ “Inter medias” 5. 618. “Atque manum pinu flagranti fervidus inplet” (of Turnus) 9. 72.

[398] Comp. for the rhythm Catull. 62 (64). 20, “Tum Thetis humanos non despexit hymenaeos.

[399] “Sanguineam volvens aciem” 4. 643. ‘Torvum’ transferred to sound, as in the well-known line Pers. 1. 99, “Torva Mimalloneis inplerunt cornua bombis.” Appul. Flor. 3 p. 357 has “vox humana tuba rudore torvior.

[400] “Ubicunque” was the old reading. Heins. restored ‘ubi quaeque’ on the authority of the MSS. (all Ribbeck's) and Priscian p. 1060. ‘Ubi quaeque’ = “omnes, ubicunque estis,ὅθι ἑκάστη.

[401] Piis of natural feeling, here probably that between mother and child. “Per si quis Amatae Tangit honos animum” 12. 56.

[402] ‘Remordeo’ is used twice by Lucretius (no earlier instance is quoted by Forc.) of mental distress. See on 1. 261. The prefix here expresses the haunting nature of care.

[403] Crinalis, 11. 576, a poetical word. ‘Capite’ = “suscipite,” “suscipere sacra” being a phrase. Comp. Prop. 4. 11. 49, “cape, Roma, triumphum.” Schrader conj. ‘quatite.’

[404] “In silvis inter deserta ferarum” 3. 646, where “lustra” is added.

[405] Stimulis undique Bacchi, with the stimulants of Bacchus (a Bacchic fury) acting on her from every side. With ‘undique’ comp. Hor. 2 S. 3. 223, “Hunc circumtonuit gaudens Bellona cruentis.

[406-434] ‘Allecto then visits Turnus, under the form of an old priestess, and bids him make war on the Trojans and, if necessary, on Latinus.’

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