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[107] “Ductores primi” 9. 226. “Pulcher Iulus” 5. 570.

[108] Made up of two lines in Lucr., 1. 258., 2. 30.

[109] “Instituere convivia” occurs Suet. Tit. 7. Festus calls “ador” “farris genus, edor quondam appellatum ab edendo, vel quod aduratur, ut fiat tostum, unde in sacrificio mola salsa efficitur,” and Pliny 18. 8 says “far, quod adoreum veteres appellavere,” so that Virg. doubtless intentionally used an antiquarian and sacrificial word. ‘Liba’ were properly sacrificial cakes, and ‘augent’ (below v. 111) was the word for laying gifts on the altar (8. 284., 9. 407., 11. 50, Plaut. Merc. 4. 1. 10). Probably such language is used to lend dignity to a trivial subject.

[110] Liba subiiciunt epulis for “epulas imponunt libis.” So “subiiciunt veribus prunas” 5. 103 note. Heins. restored ‘Iuppiter ille’ from Med. (second reading) and some other MSS., supported by Serv. and Priscian. Pal., Rom., Gud., and the rest of Ribbeck's MSS. with the first reading of Med., have ‘ipse.’ ‘Iuppiter ille’ is not to be taken as the Jupiter of 3. 251, as Serv. thinks, but like “pater ille” (v. 556., 2. 779., 10. 875), and Plaut. Mostell. 2. 1. 51,ita ille faxit Iuppiter,Id. Curc. 1. 1. 27,nec me ille sirit Iuppiter,” ‘ille’ in this expression originally signifying on high (‘that god away from us’), though the phrase probably ceased in time to have a definite meaning. Possibly however it may be urged on the other side that in all these passages some one is speaking, which is not the case here. ‘Monebat’ is not ‘foretold,’ for Jupiter did not foretell what is denoted by ‘sic’ here, but ‘inspired.’ There is reason to suppose that the custom of using cakes for platters was a religious one, as Serv. on 1. 736 says “tangit ritum Romanorum, qui paniceas sacratasque mensas habebant, in quas libabant:” comp. Id. on 3. 257.

[111] For ‘solum’ (that on which anything rests) comp. 5. 199, “subtrahiturque solum,” where it is the sea on which the ship rests, and the use of the word in Lucr. 1.927 &c. for the sole of the foot. ‘Cereale solum’ is a dignified expression for a cake used as a platter.

[112] Aliis in the sense of “ceteris,” “reliquis:” see Freund. Some MSS. have ‘morsum,’ which was perhaps the first reading of Pal.

[113] Exiguam refers to the thinness of the cakes. ‘Edendi’ is not the pass. part. (“penuria eius quod edendum esset, comedi posset” Heyne), but the gerund, like “amor edendi” 8. 184, where “amor compressus edendi” is a translation of ἐδητύος ἐξ ἔρον ἕντο. ‘Penuria edendi’ like “penuria cibiLucr. 5.1007.

[114] Violare and ‘audacibus’ are probably used with reference to ‘fatalis;’ though there is some confusion in the thought: fate so far as it was embodied in this ‘crustum’ was fulfilled, not violated. If the platters themselves were sacred, there is a further justification for the expression.

[115] The ‘quadrae’ were squares marked on the ‘orbis crusti.’ Moret. 47, “iamque subactum Laevat opus, palmisque suum dilatat in orbem, Et notat, impressis aequo discrimine quadris.” ‘Patulis,’ flat. ‘Crustum’ is a rarer form of “crusta.

[116] A period or semicolon is commonly placed after ‘Iulus,’ so as to make ‘nec plura (dixit) adludens’ an elliptical clause by itself. But the other seems the easier punctuation. The propriety of putting this pleasantry into the mouth of Ascanius has often been remarked on. In Dion. H. 1. 55 it is said by some unknown member of the company.

[117] Adludens, jesting, as in Cic. 1 De Or. 56, “Galba autem, adludens varie et copiose, multas similitudines afferre, multaque pro aequitate contra ius dicere.” The pleasantry consists simply in perceiving the resemblance of the platter to a table and the incongruity of the notion of eating the latter. ‘Vox’ of an utterance 2. 119.

[118] Tulit finem like “finem ferat” 3. 145, where, as here, “ferre” may have the sense of “nuntiare.” But it seems better in both passages to make it = “dare:” comp. 1. 241, “quem das finem, rex magne, laborum?” and for “dare” of the announcer of a blessing 3. 85 note. ‘Prima’ almost = “tandem:” comp. E. 1. 45 note, A. 9. 110. It is not easy to give a definite sense to ‘primam:’ it may be “ut primum omen” (comp. 3. 547, a sense which perhaps lurks in ‘prima’ also): it may have the force of ‘instantly’ (comp. “quam primum”): or it may be a mere repetition of ‘prima,’ iterating the notion that this was the dawn of hope. Comp. generally 1. 442, 450, which will illustrate these different shades of meaning, and perhaps incline us to believe that Virg. had all of them in his mind. “Narrantis ab ore” 4. 79.

[119] Eripuitacpressit, ‘snatched it from his mouth (caught it up) and stopped his utterance,’ that he might not mar the omen by saying more, ‘vocem’ being the object both of ‘eripuit’ and ‘pressit,’ though in the sense of speech in one case and of speaking in the other. Comp. 2. 378, “retroque pedem cum voce repressit,” 9. 322, “Sic memorat vocemque premit,” though the ‘vox’ there is that of the subject of the verb, there being nothing in the context, as here, to determine it otherwise. The objection made by Wagn. to taking ‘pressit’ as “vocem Ascanii repressit,” that Ascanius had done (‘nec plura’) and did not require to be stopped, assumes that there was no fear of his beginning again. Besides ‘loquentis’ implies that Aeneas broke in before he had well got the words out. Nor does ‘nec plura’ seem to denote a dead stop so much as that it was a careless and passing exclamation. Wagn.'s own interpretation, “animo pressit” (pondered on it), is inconsistent with ‘continuo,’ and is not supported by such expressions as “dolorem,” “curam corde premit,” implying deep or suppressed emotion. Jahn apparently takes ‘pressit’ as ‘followed it up,’ comparing “argumentum premere:” but this would not agree well with ‘stupefactus numine.’ Aeneas did follow Ascanius' speech up immediately, but it was while he was recovering his bewilderment. With ‘eripuitCerda comp. προαρπάζειν ἀλλήλων τὰ λεγόμενα Plato Gorg. p. 454 C, and “arripuit omen Paullus” Val. Max. 1. 5. 3. ‘Numine,’ the divine power manifested in the words; nearly equivalent to “omine.” Comp. 2. 123, “quae sint ea numina divom;” 3. 363, “cuncti suaserunt numine divi Italiam petere,” both referring to oracles, and see on 8. 78.

[120] Continuo, v. 68. ‘Fatis debita:’ see on 6. 67., 3. 184.

[121] Fidi includes fidelity to Aeneas and his race (3. 156) as well as the truth of their prediction that he should find a settlement in Latium (ib. 163). With the latter we may comp. Romeo's “O true apothecary!”

[122] We might have expected “haec domus:” but ‘hic’ = “in hac tellure quae patria est.” Some MSS. read ‘hic patria est.’ “Hic tibi certa domus, certi, ne absiste, Penates” 8. 39. ‘Domuspatria;’ both his and the Penates'. 3. 167, “Hae nobis (Penatibus) propriae sedes; hinc Dardanus ortus, Iasiusque pater, genus a quo principe nostrum.” With the expression comp. 4. 347, “Hic amor, haec patria est,” though ‘hic’ there is probably the pronoun. Heyne placed a comma after ‘talia,’ taking ‘namque’ with ‘nunc repeto;’ but ‘namque,’ in this way, has less meaning, and beginning a clause at the end of a line, it is harsh. For the position of this particle as the fourth word in the clause comp. 5. 732., 10. 614, where as here it ends a line. Otherwise ‘namque’ would come in naturally in a parenthetical clause: comp. Ov. M. 15. 160, “nam memini,” &c.

[123] “Nunc repeto” 3. 184. ‘Anchises’ introduces a difficulty. Celaeno (3. 255) prophesies that they should be driven to eat their tables, and Helenus (ib. 394) confirms it, with an assurance that the fates should find a solution. The words of Celaeno, “ambesas subigat malis absumere mensas,” are almost exactly the same as those which are here ascribed to Anchises, and she connects the incident with the foundation of the city, though she does not make it a token that they have found their home. The discrepancy is only one out of several which exist between the Third Book and other parts of the poem. Some have fancied that this was one of the things revealed by Anchises to Aeneas in Elysium (6. 890 foll.), but ‘reliquit’ points to predictions delivered in life, perhaps altered or bequeathed on the deathbed. ‘Ignota ad litora’ is again inconsistent with the speech of Celaeno, who expressly mentions Italy. “Fatorum arcana” 1. 262, apparently = “arcana fata.

[124] Fames coget like “fames subigat” 3. 256. So above v. 113, “penuria adegit edendi.

[125] Accisis, running short. Hor. S. 2. 113, “Integris opibus novi non latius usum, Quam nunc accisis.” Serv. explains it as if he may have read ‘ancisis.’

[126] ‘Sperare memento’ is rather long-drawn: but we must not therefore suppose that ‘sperare’ can stand as inf. for imperative. See on 3. 405.

[127] “Moliri aggerem,” or “cingere tecta aggere” (below v. 159), would be the natural expression. ‘Moliri aggere tecta’ combines both. ‘To build dwellings and raise a rampart round them.’ The expression is appropriate to a settlement which was not to be so much a city as a camp, v. 159. ‘Prima’ should be taken semi-adverbially, and connected with ‘tum’ and ‘ibi.’ ‘Manu’ half-pleonastically of personal exertion, G. 2. 156.

[128] “Haec illa Charybdis” 3. 558. ‘Manebat,’ was waiting for us all the time, though we knew it not, like “quanta laborabas Charybdi” Hor. 1 Od. 27. 19. One early edition gives ‘monebat’ (sc. Anchises), which might be supported from 3. 559. Rom. has ‘manebant.’ ‘Suprema’ is explained by the next line.

[129] Exitiis; for the plural, comp. Cic. pro Mil. 2, “quos P. Clodii furor rapinis et incendiis et omnibus exitiis pavit.” One MS., in the library at Gotha, gives ‘exiliis,’ which agrees very well with the sense of v. 126, and the words of 2. 780 (comp. ‘positura modum’ with “longa”). Burm. approves it, and Wakef. and Ribbeck adopt it. The external authority is probably worthless; but the confusion is natural enough: see on 10. 850. Perhaps we may defend ‘exitiis’ by supposing the thought to be that unlike ordinary hunger, which is itself ‘exitium,’ this puts an end to ‘exitia.’

[130] “Primi sub lumina solis” 6. 255. ‘Cum lumine’ like ἅμ᾽ ἕῳ. With these lines comp. generally 1. 305 foll. ‘Laeti:’ see on v. 430.

[131] Habeant i. q. “habitent” v. 696 below. “Genti data moenia” 3. 501.

[132] Et petamus would be more naturally expressed by a participle—‘let us explore, going in different directions.’

[133] Pateras libate like “libabant pocula” 3. 354. “Animamque vocabat Anchisae” 5. 98.

[134] Vina reponite mensis: see on G. 3. 527. The language here and in v. 146 seems to waver between an ordinary second course and a second banquet instituted in honour of the good news. Comp. 8. 283.

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