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[541] Solio ab alto 11. 301. The epithet here seems used a little loosely, as in v. 461.

[542] For an act of worship immediately following on the receipt of a supernatural communication comp. 3. 176., 5. 743., 7. 135 foll. We do not hear of any sacrifiee having been offered privately to Hereules the night before by Aeneas or Evander, after the concluding celebration at the Ara Maxuma (v. 306); but such sacrifices were doubtless common, if indeed the mere kindling of the hearth in the “atrium” would not be a religious act (comp. 1. 704), so that there would be no need to mention it. Hercules would naturally be one of Evander's household gods, as they seem to have varied in the case of different persons, 5. 63. This is one of Heyne's explanations, and it seems sufficiently natural, being confirmed moreover by the parallel 5. 743. The alternatives he offers are to suppose that sacred fire had been taken from the Ara Maxuma the evening before by Evander and placed on his domestic altar, so that ‘Herculeis iguibus’ would = “ignibus ex Herculis ara sumptis,” which is Cerda's view, and to read ‘Herceis’ (comp. note on 2. 512), which, as he remarks, is confirmed by Lucan 9. 979, “Herceas, monstrator ait, non respicis aras?” It may be worth noticing that the name ‘Hercules’ has been etymologically connected with ἕρκος by Mommsen, Unterit. Dialecte, p. 262. Wagn, thinks that there is another sacrifice at the Ara Maxuma, as well as at home to the household gods; but the words are hardly such as would be used to express Aeneas' going to a more or less distant place, which the Ara Maxuma must have been. ‘Ignibus’ with ‘excitat:’ he rekindles the dead or dying embers with fire. The epithet ‘Herculeis,’ as explained above, belongs more properly to ‘aras:’ but it is transferred more Vergiliano.

[543] Suscitat Rom., doubtless from a recollection of v. 410., 5. 743. ‘Externum’ Rom., which Heyne and Voss prefer, interpreting it i. q. ξένιον: but the word could not well bear such a sense, and ‘hesternum’ is sufficiently defended by what has been said on v. 542. The Penates may be either Aeneas' own or Evander's or both.

[544] Laetus 3. 178: see on 7.430 &c. ‘Adit’ a special word of approaching in worship. Gossrau comp. Cic. Legg. 2. 10, “Caste iubet lex adire ad deos,” Forb. Lucr. 5.1229, “votis adit ac prece quaesit.” Comp. the use of “accedere,” “adhibere,” “admovere.” ‘Mactant’ Med., ‘mactat’ Pal., Rom., Gud. The sing. is perhaps slightly more probable: comp. 1. 513 “Obstipuit simul ipse, simul perculsus Achates.” For the sense see on 4. 57, where the words have already occurred. Whether this is part of the sacrifice to the household deities, or a separate one performed elsewhere, we cannot say.

[545] Pariter, not equally with Aeneas but equally with each other: comp. the double “simul” just quoted from 1. 513, and the double “aeque” Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 25.

[546] Graditur: Aeneas, who has been the main subject of the paragraph. Comp. v. 271. Serv. says “unum vacat, autpostauthinc,utPost hinc digrediens (digressus) iubeo frondentia capris Arbuta sufficere’ (g. 3. 300):” but both here and there ‘post’ refers properly to time, ‘hine’ to place. ‘Sociosque revisit’ 6.899: comp. 4. 396.

[547] It matters little whether we construct ‘de numero’ with ‘legit’ (comp. Varro R. R. 2. 8, “de asinis quam amplissimum formosissimumque possunt eligunt”) or with the suppressed antecedent to ‘quisequantur.’ Virg. has expressed himself as if the service for which these men were chosen was one of peculiar danger, which was hardly the case, as Aeneas was going to a presumably friendly power. We may say that he would naturally wish to show the Etruscans that he had warriors of his own: but this is hardly hinted at in the text. Perhaps the stress is rather on ‘sese’ than on ‘bella.

[548] Prona G. 1. 203.

[549] Fertur aqua is explained by the next clause to mean are carried without any exertion of their own: elsewhere it merely means navigation of any sort. So “fertur equis” sometimes means riding generally (5. 574), sometimes being rum away with (1. 476). “Missusque secundo defluit amniG. 3. 447, ‘Segnis,’ without need of rowing, a contrast to their former journey, where, though Tiber made his stream smooth, “remigio noctemque diemque fatigant,” v. 94. The epithet is perhaps intended to hint a faint opposition between the ‘praestantis virtute’ and their inferiors, though it is difficult to justify such an opposition: see on v. 547.

[550] Rerumque patrisque may be taken as a hendiadys. ‘Nuntia patris’ however is not unlike the Homeric πατρὸς ἀκουήν Od. 5. 19. ‘Ascanio’ may be constructed either with ‘nuntia’ (comp. 9. 228 “quisve Aeneae iam nuntius esset”) or with ‘ventura.’ Heyne remarks that we are not told of the arrival of this party, the matter being of no consequence. Yet considering the straits to which the absence of Aeneas reduced his followers, we might have expected to hear something of the effect produced by the appearance of messengers from him.

[551] Dantur, by Evander. ‘Petentibus’ rather than “petituris,” as they were already making for the place from the time when they were chosen to the service. See on 1. 519 &c.

[552] ‘Ducunt exsortem:’ see on 5. 534. Here the primary reference of ‘ducunt’ is of course to leading the horse along, like “equum duci iubet” 10. 858, though Virg. may have glanced at “ducere sortem.” We need not suppose that the other horses are actually distributed by lot, but merely that this is set apart for Aeneas without any question of choice. It is singular that the horse-cloth should be described rather than the horse itself. Lersch § 34 need hardly have doubted whether ‘quem’ refers to the horse or to Aeneas, especially after the conclusive parallel he has cited 11. 770 about the horse of Chloreus.

[553] Unguibus aureis 5. 352, also of a lion's skin. Pal. and Gud. (originally) have ‘obiit,’ as in v. 544 ‘adiit:’ see Exc. on G. 2. 81 (second edition).

[554-584] ‘Evander makes a passionate speech at the departure of Pallas, recalling his own exploits at Praeneste, and praying that he may die at once if he is not to see his son again.’

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