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Infractos, broken, as in 10. 731, &c. and almost always in Virg. Serv. wishes to take it here as = unbroken: “antea semper infractos.” ‘Fracto’ Gud. ‘Morte’ for ‘Marte’ Pal. and originally Gud. “Torpent infractae ad proelia vires” 9. 499.

[2] Defecisse, had fainted: “Cur indecores in limine primo Deficimus?” 11. 424. ‘Sua’ emphatic. For Turnus' promises see 11. 438 foll. ‘Reposco,’ as elsewhere, has the notion of demanding the restoration of a thing, demanding it as a due: comp. “reddo.

[3] Signari oculis: comp. Cic. 1 Cat. 1, “notat et designat oculis ad caedem unumquemque nostrum.” “‘Ultro’ . . . antequam aliquis exposcat,” Serv. ‘Oculos’ Med. a m. p. and Pal. originally.

[4] Two passages of Homer seem to have been in Virg.'s mind: Il. 5. 134 foll. Τυδείδης . . . καὶ πρίν περ θυμῷ μεμαὼς Τρώεσσι μάχεσθαι, Δὴ τότε μιν τρὶς τόσσον ἕλεν μένος, ὥστε λέοντα, &c. and Il. 20. 164 foll. (of Achilles going to meet Aeneas), Πηλείδης δ᾽ ἑτέρωθεν ἐναντίον ὦρτο, λέων ὢς Σίντης, ὅντε καὶ ἄνδρες ἀποκτάμεναι μεμάασιν Ἀγρόμενοι, πᾶς δῆμος: δὲ πρῶτον μὲν ἀτίζων Ἔρχεται, ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε κέν τις Ἀρηϊθόων αἰζηῶν Δουρὶ βάλῃ, ἐάλη τε χανών, περί τ᾽ ἀφρὸς ὀδόντας Γίγνεται, &c. Virg. localizes the description (‘Poenorum in arvis’) as he does that of the boar, 10. 708 foll. It is best to remove the commas after ‘arvis’ and ‘pectus,’ as the participial clause is not like those in 1. 3, 457 &c., but coheres closely with the verb.

[5] Ille, note on 11. 809. ‘Venantum volnere’ 2. 436 note. ‘Venatum’ originally Med. and Gud.

[6] tum demum after ‘saucius’ like “tum vero” 5. 720 after “incensus.” ‘Movere arma,’ the common phrase for ‘to begin war’ (Livy 7. 29, &c.), is used of the lion as the military expression “signa movere” is of the bull, G. 3. 236.

[7] Tori masses of hair: Pliny, Ep. 5. 8. 10, speaking of history and oratory says “hanc (historiam) saepius ossa, musculi, nervi, illam (orationem) tori quidam et quasi iubae decent.” Catullus 61 (63). 83 speaks of a lion's “torosa cervix,” probably with the same sense of ‘torus.’ Mr. Long prefers taking ‘tori’ of the muscles of the neck. ‘Gaudet excutiens’ like “gaudet tuens” v. 82 below, “gaudet se attollens” vv. 702, 703 below. “Latronis, h. l. venatoris, qui ex insidiis eum aggressus est: translate ab iis qui vias obsident praedandi causa” Heyne. The word was originally used of hired soldiers: see Varro L. L. 7. 52, and the Dictt.

[8] Τοῦ δ᾽ οὔποτε κυδάλιμον κῆρ Ταρβεῖ οὐδὲ φοβεῖται of a lion at bay, Il. 12. 45. ‘Cruento:’ the blood of the wound stains his mouth when he breaks the arrow in trying to pull it out. “Fremet horridus ore cruento” 1. 296.

[9] ‘Gliscet’ Med. ‘Violentia,’ see on 10. 151.

[10] Turbidus 10. 648 note. ‘Infit’ 5. 708. “Talibus infit” 10. 860.

[11] Comp. “In me mora non erit ullaE. 3. 52 note. ‘Retractent,’ not (as Serv. says) “repetantet revolvant,” but take back, ‘retract:’ a rare sense of the word: Forc. quotes Trajan to Pliny, Ep. 10. 112, “factas ante aliquantum temporis largitiones retractari atque in inritum vindicari non oportet.” It is worth notice that the words ‘mora’ and ‘retracto’ occur, as if by a kind of retribution, in Aeneas' speech to Turnus, v. 889, “Quae nunc deinde mora est, aut quid iam, Turne, retractas?” Turnus is alluding to the speech of Aeneas, 11. 115 foll. Virg. may have thought of Il. 4. 357, πάλιν δ᾽ ὅγε λάζετο μῦθον, if that is rightly understood of retracting.

[12] Ignavi, the constant taunt of the Rutulians against the Trojans. ‘Nec quae,’ &c., or refuse the terms of their engagement. ‘Neque’ Pal. originally. There had been no compact, and no sign on Aeneas' part of withdrawing from the challenge: but Turnus characteristically blames any one rather than himself.

[13] Congredior pres. like “sequor omina tanta” 9. 21. (Wagn.) The final syllable of ‘pater’ is lengthened as in 5, 521, “Ostentans artemque pater arcumque sonantem:” 11. 469, “Concilium ipse pater et magna incepta Latinus.” See Excursus to this book. ‘Sacra,’ sacred things for the ceremony: fire, water, verbenae, &c. See v. 119 below. ‘Concipere foedus’ on the analogy of “concipere verba:” to recite a formula of oath or prayer which the person who takes the oath repeats. So Cic. ad Q. Fr. 2. 15a, “Negat in tanta multitudine quemquam fuisse qui vadimonium concipere posset” (=“proferre formulam vadimonii”). Forc. “Conceptum foedus” v. 158 below.

[14] Haec Pal. originally for ‘hac.’ ‘Dardanium,’ contemptuous, like “Dardanus” 4. 662, “Dardanium caput” ib. 640., 11. 399. ‘Dardanium’ here a substantive, not an adj. agreeing with ‘desertorem.’ “Hac Erulum dextra sub Tartara misi” 8. 563.

[15] Desertorem Asiae involves the charge which Aeneas had met by anticipation in his narrative, 2. 431 foll. “Regnatorem Asiae” 2. 557. ‘Sedeant’ is suggested, as Wagn. points out, by Paris' language, Il. 3. 68, Ἄλλους μὲν κάθισον Τρῶας καὶ πάντας Ἀχαιούς, Αὐτὰρ ἔμ᾽ ἐν μέσσῳ καὶ Ἀρηΐφιλον Μενέλαον Συμβάλετ᾽, &c. It can hardly be contemptuous, as Turnus would not be likely to taunt the Latins. Comp. v. 78 below.

[16] Crimen ferro, Rom. with one of Ribbeck's cursives. ‘Crimen commune:’ the charge which lies against all my people: “commune fugae ac timoris dedecus,” Serv. This is better than taking it to mean (with Heyne) “criminationem Turni ab omnibus factam.

[17] Victor for ‘victos’ Mentel. originally and some inferior copies: whence Heins. conj. ‘abeat victor.’ ‘Abeat’ Zulich. originally. ‘Habeat victos’ = hold us conquered in his hand. Virg. generally writes ‘Lāvīnia’ (6. 764., 7. 72, &c.); but he has ‘Lăviīnia’ 7. 359, ‘Lăvī’ 1. 258 note. ‘Cedat’ 3. 297, 333. Here it is, perhaps, to be taken closely with ‘coniunx,’ i. q. “cedat in matrimonium.

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