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[310] Cano is regularly used of military music. Here ‘signa’ is probably the nom.: comp. Livy 27. 15, “canere inde tabae:” ib. 47, “ut attendat semel bisne signum canat in castris:” 28. 27, “classicum apud eos cecinit:” though Merivale on Sallust Cat. 59 (“signa canere iubet”) explains it as the accus. The countrymen on Turnus' side (“legio agrestis” 7. 681) are mentioned throughout Bk. 7: comp. 8. 8, “latos vastant cultoribus agros.

[311] Virg. is imitating Il. 6. 5. foll. ‘Omen pugnae’ a kind of cognate acc. after ‘invasit:’ see on 6. 223, and comp. 9. 53. ‘Omen’ an auspicious commencement, like “regibus omen erat” 7. 174.

[312] Ultro above v. 282.

[313, 314] Perqueper: see E. 4. 6 note. ‘Aerea suta’ seems to mean the ‘lorica:’ “loricam ex aere rigentem” 8. 621, though it might be taken of the belt, “sutilis balteus” 12. 273, 274. Gud. corrected has ‘scuta,’ which was the old reading before Pier. and Heins. ‘Squalentem auro,’ rough with the solid scales of gold on which it is woven: comp. 12. 87, “auro squalentem alboque orichalco . . . Loricam.” ‘Haurit’ 2. 600 note.

[315] “Omnes qui secto ventre procreantur Deo Apollini consecrati sunt, quia Deus medicinae est per quam lucem sortiuntur. Unde Aesculapius fictus est eius filius,” Serv., who goes on to specify Aesculapius as one of these, and accounts for the worship of Apollo in the family of Caesar by the exploded story that the first of that name was so born.

[316, 317] ‘At’ Pal. originally for ‘et.’ ‘Quo’ (= “quorsum”), suggested by Markland on Stat. 1 Silv. 2. 88, is given by Pal. corrected and Gud. originally. Rom. and a variant in one of Ribbeck's cursives give ‘cui,’ which was the reading before Heins., and is mentioned by Serv.: comp. G. 4. 447. It is perhaps too much to say with Heyne of ‘quo’ “vix probabit tale acumen qui Maronem noverit,” as we might comp. the somewhat similar interruption “at tu dictis, Albane, maneres,” 8. 643: but we may say that Virg. would hardly have introduced the thought here so immediately before the similar expressions in vv. 319 foll. Serv.'s note “respexit ad illud quod ferrum nunc iuvenis vitare non potuit quod parvus evasit,” only shows that he supposed the hint of this to be contained in ‘parvo,’ as is probably the case. ‘Casus ferri’ referring to ‘exsectum.’ ‘Nec longe’ = not ‘nec multo post’ (Serv.), but ‘nec procul:’ see on 5. 406. ‘Cissea durum’ like “duri Halaesi” v. 422 below.

[318] Il. 7. 141 of Areithous: ἀλλὰ σιδηρείῃ κορύνῃ ῥήγνυσκε φάλαγγας.

[319] Schrader conj. ‘telo’ for ‘leto’ ingeniously but erroneously: see on 11. 642. Though ‘deiicio’ does not appear in any other place in Virg. with dat., we have “demittere neci,” “morti” 2. 85., 5. 692., 10. 662: and “coniicere” with dat. 7. 456. ‘Leto:’ see on G. 3. 480. ‘Nihil illos’ &c.: Il. 7. 143, στεινωπῷ ἐν ὁδῷ, ὅθ᾽ ἄρ᾽ οὐ κορύνη οἱ ὄλεθρον Χραῖσμε σιδηρείη, of which it is a characteristic variation. ‘Herculis arma’ of a club, like “Herculeo amictu” of a lion's skin 7. 669. “Herculis arma” 5. 410 of the caestus.

[320] ‘Genitorque Melampus’ may imply that their father's bravery had descended to them. This Melampus is not the same as the celebrated seer mentioned G. 3. 550. Another companion of Hercules, Antores, is mentioned 10. 779.

[321] Cum Med. a m. p., and so Heins. and after him Heyne, because of the recurrence of ‘dum’ in the next line. But ‘usque,’ as Wagn. remarks, requires ‘dum.’ ‘Dum’ with perf. as in 1. 268., 3. 16. The earth is said to have supplied labours to Hercules not only because he encountered them while in life, but because most of them consisted in clearing the earth from monsters (comp. Soph. Trach. 1060, Lucr. 5.22 foll.). There may also be a notion that he lived till there were no more portents to subdue.

[322] Pharo Med. and Gud. originally, Pal. corrected. ‘Pharon’ Pal. originally, and Med. corrected. “‘Pharon’—legitur et Pharo,” Serv. ‘Pharo’ (dat. from Pharus) is probably right, though ‘Pharos’ or ‘Pharo’ might be nom. to ‘iactat.’ ‘Inertis’ here as elsewhere (see on 2. 364) denotes not inaction generally, but unfitness for war. Pharus was boasting loudly when he ought to have been fighting. Comp. “segnis” v. 592 note. ‘Pharo’ doubtless with ‘intorquens:’ comp. 2. 231., 1. 637.

[323] It is difficult to decide between ‘clamantis’ (Med., Pal., Gud.) and ‘clamanti’ (Rom., supported by Serv.), as ‘clamantisistit’ would account for either. If the latter be read, it would naturally agree with ‘ore,’ supposing ‘Pharo’ to be constructed with ‘intorquens.’ Virg.'s custom is decidedly in favour of making the participle in such cases agree with the person, not with the organ which he employs: e.g. 4. 79., 9. 442. On the whole then it seems better to read ‘clamantis,’ though the authority of Serv. makes the point very doubtful.

[325, 326] Gaudia like “deliciasE. 2. 2. ‘Securus amorum,’ with no more thought of love. The phrase is repeated (with a different shade of meaning) from 1. 350: see below on v. 396.

[327] Iuvenum naturally belongs to ‘amorum,’ but is transferred to the relative for neatness' sake. ‘Miserande’ voc. for nom., as is not uncommon in emotional passages: see on 2. 283. Comp. δύστηνε δῆτα διὰ πόνων πάντων φανείς Soph. Phil. 761.

[328] Comp. 12. 277, “fratres, animosa phalanx.

[329] It seems best to return to Heyne's punctuation, putting a colon or semicolon after ‘progenies,’ and constructing ‘septem (sunt) numero, septenaque tela Coniiciunt’ independently. To connect ‘septenaque tela coniiciunt’ with ‘foret obvia’ would be to introduce a construction of quite unexampled harshness, as though it is true that a finite verb with a copulative is frequently used instead of a participle in Virg., the verb is always put into the same mood as that with which it is coupled: not to mention that it is a mere assumption to say that the participle here would be more natural than the finite verb. Wagn.'s other suggestion, that ‘septem numero septenaque tela coniiciunt’ is a construction of the same sort as “obvius adversoque occurrit” v. 734 below, is more plausible, but breaks down nevertheless, as with all Virg.'s fondness for this mode of expression he still uses it within certain limits, and does not employ the copulative to connect a noun which faintly qualifies the verb with an acc. of the ordinary objective sort, expressing that on which its action takes effect. ‘Septena’ for “septem,” see on v. 27.

[330] Partem Med. a m. p. and Rom. With ‘resultant inrita’ comp. ἅλιον πηδῆσαι α^κοντα Il. 14. 455.

[331] Deflexit stringentia proleptic: ‘turned them off so that they merely touched him.’ Comp. Il. 4. 130, where Athene keeps off the dart from Menelaus only so much as a mother keeps off a fly from her sleeping child. ‘Stringo’ in the same sense 9. 577. ‘Defixit’ Pal. originally for ‘denexit:’ ‘stridentia’ Med. a m. p. for ‘stringentia.

[332] Adfatus Gud. originally.

[333] The resemblance to Il. 13. 259 foll. (comp. by Heyne) is very faint.

[334] Torserit, will be found to have hurled. For ‘steterunt,’ the tense required by the meaning. Med. first reading has ‘steterint,’ and Gud. corrected ‘steterant;’ and for ‘quae’ Med. corrected, Rom., and Gud. give ‘que,’ a reading which Serv. mentions, saying that it was explained by some as = “enim.” ‘Quae’ for “eorum quae:” comp. E. 2. 71, “quin tu aliquid saltem potius quorum indiget usus” &c., where “quorum” = “eorum quorum.” ‘Stare’ of a weapon fixed in the body, as 11. 817. Comp. Livy 27. 14, “in quorum tergis infixa stetere pila.” Virg. has here taken the words but not the sense of Il. 14. 454 foll. Οὐ μὰν αὖτ᾽ ὀΐω μεγαθύμου ΙΙανθοΐδαο Χειρὸς ἀπὸ στιβαρῆς ἅλιον πηδῆσαι α^κοντα, Ἀλλά τις Ἀργείων κόμισε χροΐ. Comp. 8. 298 Ὀκτὼ δὴ προέηκα τανυγλώχινας ὀϊστούς, ΙΙάντες δ᾽ ἐν χροΐ πῆχθεν Ἀρηϊθόων αἰζηῶν, where the sing. χροΐ may illustrate (if it did not suggest) the sing. ‘corpore’ in this passage. It is doubtful whether ‘corpore’ = “corporibus” (comp. Eur. Suppl. 273, τέκνων τεθνεώτων κομίσαι δέμας, where however the fact that δέμας has no pl. makes a difference, and perhaps Att. Epinausim. fr. 12 “Atque acervos alta in amni corpore explevi hostico”), or ‘corpore Graium’ = “in aliquo de Graiis:” neither is altogether satisfactory.

[336] ‘Transverberare’ of the blow of a lance v. 484 below, 11. 667: comp. 5. 503 note. ‘Aera’ the layers of brass on the shield: comp. 10. 482, 783-4.

[337] “Rumpitque infixa bilicem Loricam” 12. 375. Π̔ῆξε δὲ θώρηκος γύαλον Il. 17. 314: comp. Il. 2. 417. Rom. has ‘rupit.

[338] Fraterfratrem like 10. 600 “fratrem ne desere frater.

[339, 340] The words can only mean that the spear which pierced Maeon passed on and severed the arm of Alcanor as he put it out to help his brother. Heyne is quite right in objecting to the marvellousness of such a stroke, and to the inconsistency of making Numitor draw out this very javelin to throw it back, as, if hurled with such violence, it could hardly have been dislodged; but that is no reason for supposing, as he and the later editors do, that the ‘hasta’ mentioned here is a second spear. The account of the brothers Maris and Atymnius Il. 16. 317 foll. on which this is modelled, is much less marvellous: Νεστορίδαι δ᾽, μὲν οὔτασ᾽ Ἀτύμνοιν ὀξέϊ δουρὶ Ἀντίλοχος . . . . . Ἤριπε δὲ προπάροιθε, Μάρις δ᾽ αὐτοσχεδὰ δουρὶ Ἀντιλόχῳ ἐπόρουσε κασιγνήτοιο χολωθεὶς . . . . τοῦ δ᾽ ἀντίθεος Θρασυμήδης Εφθη ὀρεξάμενος . . . . Ὦμον ἄφαρ: πρυμνὸν δὲ βραχίονα δουρὸς ἀκωκὴ Δρύψ᾽ ἀπὸ μυώνων &c. “‘Traiecto lacerto,quae fuerat missa retroacto lacerto” Serv., from which Peerlkamp and Ribbeck suppose that he read ‘reiecto’ or ‘at reiecto:’ but it is merely a false rendering. ‘Protinus’ onward: E. 1. 13 note. “Servare tenoremLucr. 4.632.

[341, 342] Nervis sinews and tendons. περὶ δ᾽ ἔγχεος αἰχμῇ Νεῦρα διεσχίσθη Il. 16. 315. The English idiom ‘hung by the sinews’ suits the abl. ‘nervis’ exactly, but it is not easy to parallel it in Latin. ‘Moribunda:’ comp. Lucan 9. 831, “Stat vivus, pereunte manu:” Juv. 3. 48, “exstinctae corpus non utile dextrae.” With this line comp. the description of the wound given by Menelaus to Helenus Il. 13. 594. ἐν δ᾽ ἄρα τόξᾠ Αντικρὺ διὰ χειρὸς ἐλήλατο χάλκεον ἔγχος: Ἂψ δ᾽ ἑτάρων εἰς ἔθνος ἐχάζετο Κῆρ᾽ ἀλεείνων, Χεῖρα παρακρεμάσας. Silius imitates this passage 4. 208 foll.

[342] Fratris may be either Maeon or Alcanor.

[343] Petit Med., Pal., Rom., Gud.: see Exc. on G. 2. 81. ‘Effigere’ Rom. originally for ‘et figere.’ ‘Figere contra’ ( = ἀντικρύ) to strike him straight: so Sallust Jug. 50,nec contra feriendi aut conserendi manus copia erat”: “aspicere contra” 11. 374 ‘to look in the face.’

[344] Que in ‘magnique’ continues the idea given in ‘figere non est licitum:’ comp. 2. 94, “nec tacui demens et me . . . Promisi ultorem.” ‘Perstrinxit’ grazed, glanced along.

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