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ἐν γὰρ explaining ὅπερ ἐγένετο, not the fear of the oligarchs (δείσαντες). The events at Samos were not yet known at Athens.

ἐνεωτερίζετο ἤδη τὰ περὶ τὴν ὀλιγαρχίαν ‘a reaction had set in against the oligarchical movement’ (J.) The passive as in iv. 41, μὴ σφίσι τι νεωτερισθῇ τῶν κατὰ τὴν χώραν, corresponding to the active of i. 115, νεωτερίσαι βουλόμενοι τὴν πολιτείαν.

ὅνπερ = ὐφ᾽ ὅνπερ. Cf. c. 76, § 4, ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ χωρίου ἀμυνεῖσθαι οὗπερ πρότερον; i. 1, ἐκ δὲ τεκμηρίων ὧν . . . πιστεῦσαι ξυνέβη (which, however, might be a case of attraction for οἷς). Xen. Symp. iv. 1, ἐν τῷ χρόνῳ ὑμῶν ἀκούω etc.

τότε viz. c. 21. On this use of τότε see c. 20, § 1.

ὄντες δῆμος Jowett says ‘the popular party,’ and P-S ‘qui plebeii, ex plebe erant.’ But why not the more obvious sense ‘who were (since that time) a democracy’? καὶ ὄντες δῆμος expresses the consequence of ἐπαναστάντες. In the meaning sought by J. and P-S, Thucydides would rather have written e.g. οἱ ἐκ τοῦ δήμου τότε ἐπαναστάντες.

ὅτ᾽ ἦλθε c. 63, § 3.

ἐγένοντο ἐς τριακοσίους ξυνωμόται ‘became conspirators to (about) the number of 300’ Cf. c. 21, ἐς διακοσίους τινάς. In § 6 they are called οἱ τριακόσιοι simply.

ὄντι by attraction for οὖσι.

Ὑπέρβολόν τε, answered by τοῖς τε πλέοσιν κ.τ.λ. The clause καὶ ἄλλα . . . τοιαῦτα ξυνέπραξαν, which might seem to answer to τε, is only an amplification of the first member. The Samians first kill Hyperbolus and join the Athenians in other deeds of violence: second, they prepare to attack the popular party.

Ὑπέρβολον the famous demagogue, a λυχνοπώλης (Ar. Eq. 739) and butt of Aristophanes (Ach. 846, Eq. 1304, Vesp. 1007, Nub. 550-560, Pac. 681, Thesm. 839, etc.), as also of Cratinus, Eupolis and Plato Comicus. Aristophanes (Eq. 1304) also calls him μοχθηρός. Cf. Plut. Nic. 11, διὰ μοχθηρίαν. His political influence is attested from B.C. 425. He was probably ostracised in B.C. 416. Plutarch (Aristid. 7, Nic. 11, Alcib. 13) says that he brought ostracism on himself in attempting to bring it on Nicias or Alcibiades.

οὐ διὰ δυνάμεως καὶ ἀξιώματος φόβον on the purpose of ostracism cf. Aristot. Pol. v. 2, 4, . . . δι᾽ ὑπεροχὴν δὲ, ὅταν τις τῇ δυνάμει μείζων κατὰ τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ πολιτεύματος: γίνεσθαι γὰρ εἴωθεν ἐκ τῶν τοιούτων μοναρχία δυναστεία: διὸ ἐνιαχοῦ εἰώθασιν ὀστρακίζειν, οἶον ἐν Ἄργει καὶ Ἀθήνησιν. Grote, H. G. pt. ii e. xxxi. Athens had ostracised Themistocles (i. 135), Aristides, Thucydides son of Melesias, and Cimon. The case of Hyperbolus brought the institution into contempt. Plutarch (Nic. 11) quotes Plato Comicus for the lines— καίτοι πέπραχε (sc. Ὑπέρβολος) τῶν τρόπων μὲν ἄξια, αὐτοῦ δὲ καὶ τῶν στιγμάτων ἀνάξια: οὐ γὰρ τοιούτων εἵνεκ᾽ ὄστραχ᾽ ηὑρέθη. Plut. adds καὶ τὸ πέρας οὐδεὶς ἔτι τὸ παράπαν ἐξωστρακίσθη μετὰ Ὑπέρβολον.

μετὰ Χαρμίνου τε . . . καί τινων κ.τ.λ. i.e. aided and abetted by them.

ἑνὸς τῶν στρατηγῶν v. c. 30, § 1; c. 41, § 3; c. 42, § 2.

πίστιν διδόντες αὐτοῖς Jowett's ‘to whom they pledged their faith’ misses the point. Rather by this act of assassination they give a guarantee of their earnestness.

τοῖς πλέοσιν the Samian democracy.

τῶν τε στρατηγῶν answered by καὶ Θρασυβούλῳ κ τ.λ, καὶ Θρασύλλῳ . . . καὶ ἄλλοις being subordinate to the first καὶ.

Θρασυβούλῳ the same who afterwards κατήγαγε τὴν φυγὴν and overthrew the thirty tyrants.

Θρασύλλῳ afterwards one of the six generals of the battle of Arginusae who were condemned by the Athenians.

ὁπλιτεύοντι The scholiast explains ἀντὶ τοῦ ὁπλιτικοῦ ἄρχοντι, but the Greek does not imply this. For promotion see on ἐπιβάτης c. 61, § 2. The following relative clause shows why these individuals are chosen out, and a private soldier in the Athenian army may very well have shown a special opposition to the oligarchical proceedings. The modern distinction of class and culture in such cases did not exist.

οὐκ ἠξίουν κ.τ.λ. Constr. οὐκ ἠξίουν αὐτοὺς περιϊδεῖν σφᾶς (the Samians), etc.

διαφθαρέντας see on περυδεῖν ἀποτειχισθεῖσαν, c. 26, § 3.

Ἀθηναίοις The dat. also Xen. Cyr. vi 1, 16. ἀλλότριος with dat. Isoc. 306 C. This regimen is due to the sense of hostility, though the genitive of separation is more proper to the word.

ξυνέμεινεν For this tense in a relative clause instead of pluperfect v. Goodwin, M. and T. § 58.

τῶν τε στρατιωτῶν . . . καὶ τοὺς Παράλους. The soldiers are distinguished from the sailors by τε . . . καὶ, and the words οὐχ ἥκιστα do not imply that the Πάραλοι are part of the soldiery. ‘They begged both each one of the soldiers, and also, in a special degree, the Paraloi, etc.’ The Πάραλοι or Παραλῖται are the crew of the state-galley Πάραλος.

Ἀθηναίους καὶ ἐλευθέρους i.e. not δοῦλοι nor even μέτοικοι.

πάντας rowers (ζυγῖται, θρανῖται, θαλαμῖται) as well as marines and officers.

ἐν τῇ νηῒ πλέοντας Constr. literally ‘the Paraloi, men who sailed in their ship as a crew of Athenians and freemen one and all.’ Not=τοὺς ἐν τῇ ν πλ., but=‘forming a crew of nothing but Athenians and freemen.’

καὶ μὴ παρούσῃ ‘even before it came,’ i.e. at the mere suggestion.

αὐτοῖς sc. the Samian democratic party.

τριάκοντά τινας. Cf. c. 21, ἐς διακοσίους τινάς.

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    • Plutarch, Nicias, 11
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