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121. In adjectives of Consonant stems—

a. The Ablative Singular commonly ends in -ī, but sometimes -e.

  1. Adjectives used as nouns (as superstes, survivor) have -e.
  2. Participles in -ns used as such (especially in the ablative absolute, § 419), or as nouns, regularly have -e; but participles used as adjectives have regularly -ī:—
    1. dominō imperante, at the master's command; ab amante, by a lover; ab amanti muliere, by a loving woman.
  3. The following have regularly -ī:—āmēns, anceps , concors (and other compounds of cor ), cōnsors (but as a substantive, -e),dēgener, hebes , ingēns , inops , memor (and compounds), pār (in prose), perpes , praeceps , praepes , teres .
  4. The following have regularly -e: caeles , compos, [†dēses],dīves, hospes , particeps, pauper, prīnceps , sōspes , superstes . So also patrials (see § 71. 5) and stems in āt-, īt-, nt-, rt-, when used as nouns, and sometimes when used as adjectives.
b. The Genitive Plural ends commonly in -ium, but has -um in the following:1

  1. Always in compos, dīves, inops , particeps, praepes , prīnceps , supplex , and compounds of nouns which have -um: as, quadru-pēs, bi-color.
  2. Sometimes, in poetry, in participles in -ns: as, silentum concilium, a council of the silent shades (Aen. 6.432).
c. The Accusative Plural regularly ends in -īs, but comparatives commonly have -ēs.

d. Vetus (gen. -ĕris) and pūbes (gen. -ĕris) regularly have -e in the ablative singular, -a in the nominative and accusative plural, and -um in the genitive plural. For ūber , see § 119.

e. A few adjectives of one termination, used as nouns, have a feminine form in -a: as, clienta , hospita , with the appellative Iūnō Sōspita .

1 Forms in -um sometimes occur in a few others.

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