previous next

146. The Demonstrative Pronouns are used to point out or designate a person or thing for special attention, either with nouns as Adjectives or alone as Pronouns. They are:—hīc, this; is, ille , iste, that; with the Intensive ipse, self, and īdem, same; 1 and are thus declined:—

hīc, this

Note 1.-- Hīc is a compound of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -ce. In most of the cases final e is dropped, in some the whole termination. But in these latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis: as, hûius-ce , hīs-ce . In early Latin -c alone is retained in some of these ( hōrunc ). The vowel in hīc , hōc , was originally short, and perhaps this quantity was always retained. Ille and iste are sometimes found with the same enclitic: illic , illaec, illuc; also illoc . See a, p. 67.

Note 2.--For the dative and ablative plural of hīc the old form hībus is sometimes found; haec occurs (rarely) for hae .

M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. hīc haec hōc hae haec
GEN. hûius hûius hûius hōrum hārum hōrum
DAT. huic huic huic hīs hīs hīs
ACC. hunc hanc hōc hōs hās haec
ABL. hōc hāc hōc hīs hīs hīs

is, that

Note 3.--Obsolete forms are eae (dat. fem.), and eābus or ībus (dat. plur.). For dative are found also êī and ei (monosyllabic); ei , eos , etc., also occur in the plural.

M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. is ea id , ( ī eae ea
GEN. êius êius êius eōrum eārum eōrum
DAT. eīs , iīs ( īs eīs , iīs ( īs eīs , iīs ( īs
ACC. eum eam id eōs eās ea
ABL. eīs , iīs ( īs eīs , iīs ( īs eīs , iīs ( īs

ille, that

M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. ille illa illud illī illae illa
GEN. illīus illīus illīus illōrum illārum illōrum
DAT. illī illī illī illīs illīs illīs
ACC. illum illam illud illōs illās illa
ABL. illō illā illō illīs illīs illīs

Iste , ista , istud, that (yonder), is declined like ille .

Note 4.-- Ille replaces an earlier ollus ( olle ), of which several forms occur.

Note 5.-- Iste is sometimes found in early writers in the form ste etc. The first syllable of ille and ipse is very often used as short in early poetry.

Note 6.--The forms illī , istī (gen.), and illae , istae (dat.), are sometimes found; also the nominative plural istaece, illaece (for istae, illae). See a, p. 67.

ipse, self

Note 7.-- Ipse is compounded of is and -pse (a pronominal particle of uncertain origin: cf. § 145. a), meaning self. The former part was originally declined, as in reāpse (for eāpse ), in fact. An old form ipsus occurs, with superlative ipsissimus, own self, used for comic effect.

Note 8.--The intensive -pse is found in the forms eapse (nominative), eumpse, eampse, eōpse, eāpse (ablative).

M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. ipse ipsa ipsum ipsī ipsae ipsa
GEN. ipsīus ipsīus ipsīus ipsōrum ipsārum ipsōrum
DAT. ipsī ipsī ipsī ipsīs ipsīs ipsīs
ACC. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsōs ipsās ipsa
ABL. ipsō ipsā ipsō ipsīs ipsīs ipsīs

īdem, the same

Note 9.-- Īdem is the demonstrative is with the indeclinable suffix -dem. The mas<*>uline īdem is for †isdem; the neuter idem , however, is not for †iddem, but is a relic of an older formation. A final m of is is changed to n before d: as, eundem for eumdem, etc. The plural forms īdem , īsdem , are often written iīdem, iīsdem .

M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. īdem eădem ĭdem īdem (- eaedem eădem
GEN. êiusdem êiusdem êiusdem eōrundem eārundem eōrundem
DAT. eīdem eīdem eīdem eīsdem or īsdem
ACC. eundem eandem ĭdem eōsdem eāsdem eădem
ABL. eōdem eādem eōdem eīsdem or īsdem

a. Ille and iste appear in combination with the demonstrative particle -c, shortened from -ce, in the following forms:—

Note 1.--The appended -ce is also found with pronouns in numerous combinations: as, hûiusce , hunce, hōrunce, hārunce, hōsce , hīsce (cf. § 146. N. 1), illīusce, īsce; also with the interrogative -ne, in hōcine, hōscine, istucine, illicine , etc.

Note 2.--By composition with ecce or em, behold! are formed eccum (for ecce eum ), eccam, eccōs, eccās; eccillum (for ecce illum ); ellum (for em illum ), ellam, ellōs, ellās; eccistam. These forms are dramatic and colloquial.

M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. illic illaec illuc ( illoc istic istaec istuc ( istoc
ACC. illunc illanc illuc ( illoc istunc istanc istuc ( istoc
ABL. illōc illāc illōc istōc istāc istōc
N., ACC. ---- ---- illaec ---- ---- istaec

b. The combinations hûiusmodī ( hûiuscemodī ), êiusmodī, etc., are used as indeclinable adjectives, equivalent to tālis, such: as, rēs êiusmodī, such a thing (a thing of that sort: cf. § 345. a).

For uses of the Demonstrative Pronouns, see §§ 296 ff.

1 These demonstratives are combinations of o- and i- stems, which are not clearly distinguishable.

hide References (2 total)
  • Commentary references to this page (2):
    • J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., AG Cic. 1.2
    • J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., AG Cic. 2.4
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: