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284. A Predicate Noun or Adjective after the copula sum or a copulative verb is in the same case as the Subject:—
    pācis semper auctor fuī; (Lig. 28), I have always been an adviser of peace.
  1. quae pertinācia quibusdam, eadem aliīs cōnstantia vidērī potest (Marc. 31) , what may seem obstinacy to some, may seem to others consistency.
  2. êius mortis sedētis ultōrēs (Mil. 79) , you sit as avengers of his death.
  3. habeātur vir ēgregius Paulus (Cat. 4.21) , let Paulus be regarded as an extraordinary man.
  4. ego patrōnus exstitī; (Rosc. Am. 5), I have come forward as an advocate.
  5. dīcit nōn omnīs bonōs esse beātōs, he says that not all good men are happy.

a. A predicate noun referring to two or more singular nouns is in the plural:—

  1. cōnsulēs creantur Caesar et Servīlius (B. C. 3.1) , Cæsar and Servilius are elected consuls.

b. Sum in the sense of exist makes a complete predicate without a predicate noun or adjective. It is then called the substantive verb:

    sunt virī fortēs, there are (exist) brave men. [Cf. vīxēre fortēs ante Agamemnona (Hor. Od. 4.9.25), brave men lived before Agamemnon.]

For Predicate Accusative and Predicate Ablative, see §§ 392, 415. N.

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  • Commentary references to this page (1):
    • J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 1.3
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