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79. In many nouns the stem is irregularly modified in the nominative or other cases. Some peculiar forms are thus declined:—

bōs , C. senex , M. carō , F. os , N. vīs , F.
ox, cow old man flesh bone force

NOM. s senex carō os s
GEN. bŏvis senis carnis ossis s (rare)
DAT. bovī senī carnī ossī vī (rare)
ACC. bovem senem carnem os vim
ABL. bove sene carne osse
cattle PLURAL strength
NOM. bovēs senēs carnēs ossa vīrēs
GEN. boum senum carnium ossium vīrium
DAT. bus (bū bus senibus carnibus ossibus vīribus
ACC. bovēs senēs carnēs ossa vīrīs (-ēs
ABL. bus (bū bus senibus carnibus ossibus vīribus

sūs , C. Iuppiter , M. nix, F. iter , N.
swine Jupiter snow march

NOM. s Iuppiter 1 nix iter
GEN. suis Iovis nivis itineris
DAT. suī Iovī nivī itinerī
ACC. suem Iovem nivem iter
ABL. sue Iove nive itinere
NOM. suēs nivēs itinera
GEN. suum nivium itinerum
DAT. ˘bus (su ibus nivibus itineribus
ACC. suēs nivēs itinera
ABL. ˘bus (su ibus nivibus itineribus

a. Two vowel-stems in ū-, grū- and -, which follow the third declension, add s in the nominative, and are inflected like mute stems: grūs has also a nominative gruis; sūs has both suibus and sū˘bus in the dative and ablative plural, grūs has only gruibus .

b. In the stem bov- (bou-) the diphthong ou becomes ō in the nominative (bōs, bŏvis).

In nāv- (nau-) an i is added ( nāvis , -is), and it is declined like turris (§ 67).

In Iŏv- (= Ζεύς) the diphthong ( ou ) becomes ū in Iū-piter (for -păter), genitive Iŏvis , etc.; but the form Iuppiter is preferred.

c. In iter , itineris (N.), iecur, iecinoris ( iecoris ) (N.), supellēx , supellēctilis (F.), the nominative has been formed from a shorter stem; in senex , senis , from a longer; so that these words show a combination of forms from two distinct stems.

d. In nix, nivis the nominative retains a g from the original stem, the g uniting with s, the nominative ending, to form x. In the other cases the stem assumes the form niv- and it adds i in the genitive plural.

e. Vās (N.), vāsis , keeps s throughout; plural vāsa , vāsōrum . A dative plural vāsibus also occurs. There is a rare singular vāsum .

1 Also Iüpiter.

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