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519. A clause introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb may express a condition and take any of the constructions of Protasis 1 (§ 514):—
  1. quī enim vitiīs modum adpōnit, is partem suscipit vitiōrum (Tusc. 4.42) , he who [only] sets a limit to faults, takes up the side of the faults. [= quis adpōnit . Present, nothing implied.]
  2. quī mentīrī solet, pēierāre cōnsuēvit (Rosc. Com. 46) , whoever is in the habit of lying, is accustomed to swear falsely. [= quis solet . Present, nothing implied.]
  3. quicquid potuit, potuit ipsa per ; (Leg. Agr. 1.20), whatever power she had, she had by herself. [= quid potuit . Past, nothing implied.]
  4. quod quī faciet, nōn aegritūdine sōlum vacābit, sed, etc. (Tusc. 4.38) , and he who does (shall do) this, will be free not only, etc. [= quis faciet . Future, more vivid.]
  5. quisquis hūc vēnerit, vāpulābit (Pl. Am. 309) , whoever comes here shall get a thrashing. [= quis vēnerit . Future, more vivid.]
  6. quō volēs, sequar (Clu. 71) , whithersoever you wish (shall wish), I will follow. [= quō volēs . Future, more vivid.]
  7. philosophia, cui quī pāreat, omne tempus aetātis sine molestiā possit dēgere (Cat. M. 2) , philosophy, which if any one should obey, he would be able to spend his whole life without vexation. [= quis pāreat . Future, less vivid.]
  8. quaecumque vōs causa hūc attulisset, laetārer (De Or. 2.15) , I should be glad whatever cause had brought you here (i.e. if any other, as well as the one which did). [= ... attulisset . Contrary to fact.]

The relative in this construction is always indefinite in meaning, and very often in form.

1 As in the Greek ὂς ἂν, ὅταν, etc.; and in statutes in English, where the phrases if any person shall and whoever shall are used indifferently.

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  • Commentary references to this page (1):
    • J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., AG Cic. 39
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